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Lipidomic studies of membrane glycerolipids in plant leaves under heat stress.

Plant Metabolomics Reviews - 47 min 8 sec ago
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Lipidomic studies of membrane glycerolipids in plant leaves under heat stress.

Prog Lipid Res. 2019 07;75:100990

Authors: Higashi Y, Saito K

Abstract
Environmental stresses cause membrane damage in terrestrial plants. Studies on the lipids obtained from these plants are required to understand their adaptation to climate change. Recently, a number of plant leaf lipidomic studies converged on the topic of chloroplastic glycerolipid remodeling and triacylglycerol production. In this review, we show that among various abiotic stresses, plant leaves under heat stress specifically increase the levels of galactolipids containing linoleate (18:2) in chloroplasts; phospholipids containing palmitate (16:0), stearate (18:0), and oleate (18:1) in the endoplasmic reticulum and plasma membrane; and triacylglycerol containing α-linolenate (18:3) and hexadecatrienoic acid (16:3) as lipid droplets in the leaves of Arabidopsis thaliana. Recent studies have proposed responsible genes for the lipid remodeling under heat stress, highlighting the importance of the catabolic process of chloroplastic monogalactosyldiacylglycerol. This review comprehensively describes glycerolipid compositional changes in plant leaves under heat stress detected by lipidomic analyses and compares them with those under other abiotic stresses. We will discuss the physiological significance underlying the observed lipid metabolism under heat stress. Detailed knowledge about plant lipid remodeling can aid in the development of solutions to deal with the consequences of climate change, including global warming.

PMID: 31442527 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Modern traditional Chinese medicine: Identifying, defining and usage of TCM components.

Plant Metabolomics Reviews - February 25, 2020 - 8:19am
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Modern traditional Chinese medicine: Identifying, defining and usage of TCM components.

Adv Pharmacol. 2020;87:113-158

Authors: Newman DJ

Abstract
TCM-based medications have been used for millennia in China and have always been "different" from current Western-based medicines in that they frequently are still mixtures of predominately plant products. From the early 20th Century, there has been a move to identify both the actual compounds in these mixes, and then over the past approximately 50years, to utilize early information for current diseases, with an example being artemisinin for treatment of malaria. Since that discovery, Western scientists, together with their Chinese counterparts, have begun to investigate how TCM compositions can be utilized to discover new agents, sometimes the actual TCM-based compound(s) but also by utilizing the pharmacophores from such preparations that have utility in human diseases. The examples in this review include artemisinin derivatives and their manifold bioactivities, indirubins and derivatives as antitumor agents, arsenicals predominately as treatment for leukemia, though extending into other cancer types. Finally, there are sections discussing the use of current computerized techniques that combine metabolomics, mass spectroscopy/HPLC, and network pharmacology with the aim of identifying the "active principles" in relevant TCM preparations and finally how high content screening can be utilized in conjunction with the other analytical techniques.

PMID: 32089231 [PubMed - in process]

Five Apps Students Can Use To Make Podcasts

MindShift - February 25, 2020 - 12:32am
We checked in with educators to see what tools their students are using to create entries for NPR's Student Podcast Challenge.

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Why Making Time for Friends is Good for Your Health

MindShift - February 24, 2020 - 1:59am
In her new book, Lydia Denworth makes the case for the vital necessity of friendship, tracing its effects on your genes, on your brain and even on animals like sheep and fish.

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Recent advances in understanding the role of secondary metabolites in species-rich multitrophic networks.

Plant Metabolomics Reviews - February 22, 2020 - 12:18pm
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Recent advances in understanding the role of secondary metabolites in species-rich multitrophic networks.

Curr Opin Insect Sci. 2019 04;32:124-130

Authors: Sedio BE

Abstract
Understanding coexistence in species-rich communities remains a primary challenge of ecology. Interactions mediated through multitrophic networks are thought to play an important role in sustaining species coexistence in the face of competition for resources. The identity of trophic partners and the intensity with which they interact are often mediated by diverse secondary metabolites. Recent innovations in organic-molecule bioinformatics and multivariate statistical analysis are rapidly advancing our understanding of metabolites and the multitrophic interactions they mediate. Here, I examine recent advances in the study of chemical ecology in species-rich multitrophic communities, with an emphasis on plant-herbivore networks, and explore the potential for chemically mediated interactions to shape community composition and sustain species diversity in ecological communities.

PMID: 31113624 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

How Hands-On Projects Can Deepen Math Learning for Teens

MindShift - February 21, 2020 - 12:17am
When students build a catapult or tell a story with equations they can see how their calculation and formulas translate to contexts beyond a whiteboard.

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How These Denver Schools Include Students with Disabilities, and Why More Could Follow

MindShift - February 20, 2020 - 12:57am
Rather than having a center program that serves students with one type of disability, such as autism, every student is rostered to a general education classroom, where they spend as much of their day...

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