Plant Metabolomics Reviews

Crop Wild Relatives as Germplasm Resource for Cultivar Improvement in Mint (Mentha L.).

1 day 20 hours ago
Related Articles

Crop Wild Relatives as Germplasm Resource for Cultivar Improvement in Mint (Mentha L.).

Front Plant Sci. 2020;11:1217

Authors: Vining KJ, Hummer KE, Bassil NV, Lange BM, Khoury CK, Carver D

Abstract
Mentha is a strongly scented herb of the Lamiaceae (formerly Labiatae) and includes about 30 species and hybrid species that are distributed or introduced throughout the globe. These fragrant plants have been selected throughout millennia for use by humans as herbs, spices, and pharmaceutical needs. The distilling of essential oils from mint began in Japan and England but has become a significant industrial product for the US, China, India, and other countries. The US Department of Agriculture (USDA), Agricultural Research Service, National Clonal Germplasm Repository (NCGR) maintains a mint genebank in Corvallis, Oregon. This facility preserves and distributes about 450 clones representing 34 taxa, hybrid species, advanced breeder selections, and F1 hybrids. Mint crop wild relatives are included in this unique resource. The majority of mint accessions and hybrids in this collection were initially donated in the 1970s by the A.M. Todd Company, located in Kalamazoo, Michigan. Other representatives of diverse mint taxa and crop wild relatives have since been obtained from collaborators in Australia, New Zealand, Europe, and Vietnam. These mints have been evaluated for cytology, oil components, verticillium wilt resistance, and key morphological characters. Pressed voucher specimens have been prepared for morphological identity verification. An initial set of microsatellite markers has been developed to determine clonal identity and assess genetic diversity. Plant breeders at private and public institutions are using molecular analysis to determine identity and diversity of the USDA mint collection. Evaluation and characterization includes essential oil content, disease resistance, male sterility, and other traits for potential breeding use. These accessions can be a source for parental genes for enhancement efforts to produce hybrids, or for breeding new cultivars for agricultural production. Propagules of Mentha are available for distribution to international researchers as stem cuttings, rhizome cuttings, or seed, which can be requested through the GRIN-Global database of the US National Plant Germplasm System, subject to international treaty and quarantine regulations.

PMID: 32973823 [PubMed]

Omics approaches in Allium research: Progress and way ahead.

1 day 20 hours ago
Related Articles

Omics approaches in Allium research: Progress and way ahead.

PeerJ. 2020;8:e9824

Authors: Khandagale K, Krishna R, Roylawar P, Ade AB, Benke A, Shinde B, Singh M, Gawande SJ, Rai A

Abstract
Background: The genus Allium (Family: Amaryllidaceae) is an economically important group of crops cultivated worldwide for their use as a vegetable and spices. Alliums are also well known for their nutraceutical properties. Among alliums, onion, garlic, leek, and chives cultivated worldwide. Despite their substantial economic and medicinal importance, the genome sequence of any of the Allium is not available, probably due to their large genome sizes. Recently evolved omics technologies are highly efficient and robust in elucidating molecular mechanisms of several complex life processes in plants. Omics technologies, such as genomics, transcriptomics, proteomics, metabolomics, metagenomics, etc. have the potential to open new avenues in research and improvement of allium crops where genome sequence information is limited. A significant amount of data has been generated using these technologies for various Allium species; it will help in understanding the key traits in Allium crops such as flowering, bulb development, flavonoid biosynthesis, male sterility and stress tolerance at molecular and metabolite level. This information will ultimately assist us in speeding up the breeding in Allium crops.
Method: In the present review, major omics approaches, and their progress, as well as potential applications in Allium crops, could be discussed in detail.
Results: Here, we have discussed the recent progress made in Allium research using omics technologies such as genomics, transcriptomics, micro RNAs, proteomics, metabolomics, and metagenomics. These omics interventions have been used in alliums for marker discovery, the study of the biotic and abiotic stress response, male sterility, organ development, flavonoid and bulb color, micro RNA discovery, and microbiome associated with Allium crops. Further, we also emphasized the integrated use of these omics platforms for a better understanding of the complex molecular mechanisms to speed up the breeding programs for better cultivars.
Conclusion: All the information and literature provided in the present review throws light on the progress and potential of omics platforms in the research of Allium crops. We also mentioned a few research areas in Allium crops that need to be explored using omics technologies to get more insight. Overall, alliums are an under-studied group of plants, and thus, there is tremendous scope and need for research in Allium species.

PMID: 32974094 [PubMed]

A multi-omics approach to solving problems in plant disease ecology.

4 days 22 hours ago
Related Articles

A multi-omics approach to solving problems in plant disease ecology.

PLoS One. 2020;15(9):e0237975

Authors: Crandall SG, Gold KM, Jiménez-Gasco MDM, Filgueiras CC, Willett DS

Abstract
The swift rise of omics-approaches allows for investigating microbial diversity and plant-microbe interactions across diverse ecological communities and spatio-temporal scales. The environment, however, is rapidly changing. The introduction of invasive species and the effects of climate change have particular impact on emerging plant diseases and managing current epidemics. It is critical, therefore, to take a holistic approach to understand how and why pathogenesis occurs in order to effectively manage for diseases given the synergies of changing environmental conditions. A multi-omics approach allows for a detailed picture of plant-microbial interactions and can ultimately allow us to build predictive models for how microbes and plants will respond to stress under environmental change. This article is designed as a primer for those interested in integrating -omic approaches into their plant disease research. We review -omics technologies salient to pathology including metabolomics, genomics, metagenomics, volatilomics, and spectranomics, and present cases where multi-omics have been successfully used for plant disease ecology. We then discuss additional limitations and pitfalls to be wary of prior to conducting an integrated research project as well as provide information about promising future directions.

PMID: 32960892 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Antioxidant properties of small-molecule non-enzymatic compounds.

1 week 2 days ago
Related Articles

Antioxidant properties of small-molecule non-enzymatic compounds.

Pol Merkur Lekarski. 2020 Apr 22;48(284):128-132

Authors: Jakubczyk K, Kałduńska J, Dec K, Kawczuga D, Janda K

Abstract
Reactive oxygen species are molecules capable of independent existence, containing at least one oxygen atom and one or more unpaired electrons. Excessive formation of these molecules leads to oxidative stress. In recent years, there has been a growing interest in substances with antioxidant properties, reducing or preventing the harmful effects of free radicals. The compounds involved in antioxidant defence include endogenous and exogenous antioxidants, protecting body cells against the negative effects of oxygen radicals. The most important small-molecule non-enzymatic compounds found in food include ascorbic acid, retinol, β-carotene, tocopherol and polyphenolic compounds. Products of plant origin may provide a valuable source of bioactive compounds with antioxidant properties. It is believed that a diet rich in antioxidants may reduce the risk of developing several nutrition-related conditions as well as delay the ageing process. The aim of this review was to elucidate this topic and the state of the art about the role of plant orgin substances in counteraction of free radical reactions in human body.

PMID: 32352947 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Dissecting cholesterol and phytosterol biosynthesis via mutants and inhibitors.

1 week 4 days ago
Related Articles

Dissecting cholesterol and phytosterol biosynthesis via mutants and inhibitors.

J Exp Bot. 2020 Sep 15;:

Authors: De Vriese K, Pollier J, Goossens A, Beeckman T, Vanneste S

Abstract
Plants stand out among eukaryotes by the large variety of sterols and sterol derivatives that they can produce. These metabolites not only serve as critical determinants of membrane structures, but also act as signaling molecules, as growth regulating hormones, or as modulators of enzymatic activities. Therefore, it is critical to understand the wiring of the biosynthetic pathways by which plants generate these distinct sterols, to allow manipulating them and dissect their precise physiological roles. Here, we review the complexity and variation of the biosynthetic routes of the most abundant phytosterols and cholesterol in the green lineage and how different enzymes in these pathways are conserved and diverged from humans, yeast and even bacteria. Many enzymatic steps show a deep evolutionary conservation, while others are executed by completely different enzymes. This has important implications for the use and specificity of available human and yeast sterol biosynthesis inhibitors in plants, and argues for the development of plant-tailored inhibitors of sterol biosynthesis.

PMID: 32929492 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Artificial Intelligence to Decode Cancer Mechanism: Beyond Patient Stratification for Precision Oncology.

2 weeks 3 days ago

Artificial Intelligence to Decode Cancer Mechanism: Beyond Patient Stratification for Precision Oncology.

Front Pharmacol. 2020;11:1177

Authors: Patel SK, George B, Rai V

Abstract
The multitude of multi-omics data generated cost-effectively using advanced high-throughput technologies has imposed challenging domain for research in Artificial Intelligence (AI). Data curation poses a significant challenge as different parameters, instruments, and sample preparations approaches are employed for generating these big data sets. AI could reduce the fuzziness and randomness in data handling and build a platform for the data ecosystem, and thus serve as the primary choice for data mining and big data analysis to make informed decisions. However, AI implication remains intricate for researchers/clinicians lacking specific training in computational tools and informatics. Cancer is a major cause of death worldwide, accounting for an estimated 9.6 million deaths in 2018. Certain cancers, such as pancreatic and gastric cancers, are detected only after they have reached their advanced stages with frequent relapses. Cancer is one of the most complex diseases affecting a range of organs with diverse disease progression mechanisms and the effectors ranging from gene-epigenetics to a wide array of metabolites. Hence a comprehensive study, including genomics, epi-genomics, transcriptomics, proteomics, and metabolomics, along with the medical/mass-spectrometry imaging, patient clinical history, treatments provided, genetics, and disease endemicity, is essential. Cancer Moonshot℠ Research Initiatives by NIH National Cancer Institute aims to collect as much information as possible from different regions of the world and make a cancer data repository. AI could play an immense role in (a) analysis of complex and heterogeneous data sets (multi-omics and/or inter-omics), (b) data integration to provide a holistic disease molecular mechanism, (c) identification of diagnostic and prognostic markers, and (d) monitor patient's response to drugs/treatments and recovery. AI enables precision disease management well beyond the prevalent disease stratification patterns, such as differential expression and supervised classification. This review highlights critical advances and challenges in omics data analysis, dealing with data variability from lab-to-lab, and data integration. We also describe methods used in data mining and AI methods to obtain robust results for precision medicine from "big" data. In the future, AI could be expanded to achieve ground-breaking progress in disease management.

PMID: 32903628 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Salinity induced physiological and biochemical changes in plants: An omic approach towards salt stress tolerance.

2 weeks 3 days ago

Salinity induced physiological and biochemical changes in plants: An omic approach towards salt stress tolerance.

Plant Physiol Biochem. 2020 Aug 29;156:64-77

Authors: Arif Y, Singh P, Siddiqui H, Bajguz A, Hayat S

Abstract
Salinity is one of the major threats to sustainable agriculture that globally decreases plant production by impairing various physiological, biochemical, and molecular function. In particular, salinity hampers germination, growth, photosynthesis, transpiration, and stomatal conductance. Salinity decreases leaf water potential and turgor pressure and generates osmotic stress. Salinity enhances reactive oxygen species (ROS) content in the plant cell as a result of ion toxicity and disturbs ion homeostasis. Thus, it imbalances nutrient uptake, disintegrates membrane, and various ultrastructure. Consequently, salinity leads to osmotic and ionic stress. Plants respond to salinity by modulating various morpho-physiological, anatomical, and biochemical traits by regulating ion homeostasis and compartmentalization, antioxidant machinery, and biosynthesis of osmoprotectants and phytohormones, i. e, auxins, abscisic acid, brassinosteroids, cytokinins, ethylene, gibberellins, salicylic acid, jasmonic acid, and polyamines. Thus, this further modulates plant osmoticum, decreases ion toxicity, and scavenges ROS. Plants upregulate various genes and proteins that participate in salinity tolerance. They also promote the production of various phytohormones and metabolites that mitigate the toxic effect of salinity. Based on recent papers, the deleterious effect of salinity on plant physiology is discussed. Furthermore, it evaluates the physiological and biochemical responses of the plant to salinity along with phytohormone response. This review paper also highlights omics (genomics, transcriptomics, proteomics, and metabolomics) approach to understand salt stress tolerance.

PMID: 32906023 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

CE-MS for metabolomics: Developments and applications in the period 2018-2020.

2 weeks 3 days ago

CE-MS for metabolomics: Developments and applications in the period 2018-2020.

Electrophoresis. 2020 Sep 09;:

Authors: Zhang W, Ramautar R

Abstract
Capillary electrophoresis-mass spectrometry (CE-MS) is now a mature analytical technique in metabolomics, notably for the efficient profiling of polar and charged metabolites. Over the past few years, (further) progress has been made in the design of improved interfacing techniques for coupling CE to MS; also, in the development of CE-MS approaches for profiling metabolites in volume-restricted samples, and in strategies that further enhance the metabolic coverage. In this paper, which is a follow-up of a previous review paper covering the years 2016-2018 (Electrophoresis 2019, 40, 165-179), the main (technological) developments in CE-MS methods and strategies for metabolomics are discussed covering the literature from July 2018 to June 2020. Representative examples highlight the utility of CE-MS in the fields of biomedical, clinical, microbial, plant and food metabolomics. A complete overview of recent CE-MS-based metabolomics studies is given in a table, which provides information on sample type and pretreatment, capillary coatings and MS detection mode. Finally, some general conclusions and perspectives are given. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

PMID: 32906195 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Lipidomic methodologies for biomarkers of chronic inflammation in nutritional research: ω-3 and ω-6 lipid mediators.

2 weeks 5 days ago
Related Articles

Lipidomic methodologies for biomarkers of chronic inflammation in nutritional research: ω-3 and ω-6 lipid mediators.

Free Radic Biol Med. 2019 11 20;144:90-109

Authors: Dasilva G, Medina I

Abstract
The evolutionary history of hominins has been characterized by significant dietary changes, which include the introduction of meat eating, cooking, and the changes associated with plant and animal domestication. The Western pattern diet has been linked with the onset of chronic inflammation, and serious health problems including obesity, metabolic syndrome, and cardiovascular diseases. Diets enriched with ω-3 marine PUFAs have revealed additional improvements in health status associated to a reduction of proinflammatory ω-3 and ω-6 lipid mediators. Lipid mediators are produced from enzymatic and non-enzymatic oxidation of PUFAs. Interest in better understanding the occurrence of these metabolites has increased exponentially as a result of the growing evidence of their role on inflammatory processes, control of the immune system, cell signaling, onset of metabolic diseases, or even cancer. The scope of this review has been to highlight the recent findings on: a) the formation of lipid mediators and their role in different inflammatory and metabolic conditions, b) the direct use of lipid mediators as antiinflammatory drugs or the potential of new drugs as a new therapeutic option for the synthesis of antiinflammatory or resolving lipid mediators and c) the impact of nutritional interventions to modulate lipid mediators synthesis towards antiinflammatory conditions. In a second part, we have summarized methodological approaches (Lipidomics) for the accurate analysis of lipid mediators. Although several techniques have been used, most authors preferred the combination of SPE with LC-MS. Advantages and disadvantages of each method are herein addressed, as well as the main LC-MS difficulties and challenges for the establishment of new biomarkers and standardization of experimental designs, and finally to deepen the study of mechanisms involved on the inflammatory response.

PMID: 30902758 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Untargeted Metabolomics Workshop Report: Quality Control Considerations from Sample Preparation to Data Analysis.

3 weeks 3 days ago
Related Articles

Untargeted Metabolomics Workshop Report: Quality Control Considerations from Sample Preparation to Data Analysis.

J Am Soc Mass Spectrom. 2020 Sep 02;31(9):2006-2010

Authors: Phapale P, Rai V, Mohanty AK, Srivastava S

Abstract
The Proteomics Society, India (PSI), hosted the Metabolomics workshop on experimental and data analysis training for untargeted metabolomics in December 2019. The workshop included six tutorial lectures and hands-on data analysis training sessions presented by seven speakers from across the globe. The tutorials and hands-on data analysis sessions focused on workflows for liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) based on untargeted metabolomics. We review here three main topics from the workshop, which were uniquely identified as bottlenecks for new researchers: (a) experimental design, (b) quality controls during sample preparation and instrumental analysis, and (c) data quality evaluation using open source tools. Our objective here is to present common challenges faced by novice researchers and present guidelines to address them. We provide resources and good practices for researchers who are at the initial stage of setting up metabolomics workflows in their laboratories.

PMID: 32872787 [PubMed - in process]

Ambrafuran (AmbroxTM) Synthesis from Natural Plant Product Precursors.

4 weeks 1 day ago
Related Articles

Ambrafuran (AmbroxTM) Synthesis from Natural Plant Product Precursors.

Molecules. 2020 Aug 25;25(17):

Authors: Ncube EN, Steenkamp L, Dubery IA

Abstract
Ambergris, an excretion product of sperm whales, has been a valued agent in the formulation of perfumes. The composition of ambergris consists of two major components: 40-46% cholestanol type steroids and approximately 25-45% of a triterpenoid known as ambrein. Ambergris undergoes oxidative decomposition in the environment to result in odorous compounds, such as ambraoxide, methylambraoxide, and ambracetal. Its oxidized form, ambrafuran (IUPAC name: 3a,6,6,9a-tetramethyl-2,4,5,5a,7,8,9,9b-octahydro-1H-benzo[e][1]benzofuran), is a terpene furan with a pleasant odor and unique olfactive and fixative properties. The current state of the fragrance industry uses ambrafuran materials entirely from synthetic or semisynthetic sources. However, natural compounds with the potential to be converted to ambergris-like odorants have been extracted from several different types of plants. Here we review plant terpenoids suitable as starting materials for the semisyntheses of ambrafuran or intermediates, such as ambradiol, that can be used in biocatalytic transformations to yield ambrafuran.

PMID: 32854176 [PubMed - in process]

Recent developments of MALDI MSI application in plant tissues analysis.

4 weeks 2 days ago
Related Articles

Recent developments of MALDI MSI application in plant tissues analysis.

Acta Biochim Pol. 2020 Aug 27;:

Authors: Susniak K, Krysa M, Gieroba B, Komaniecka I, Sroka-Bartnicka A

Abstract
Mass spectrometry imaging (MSI) combined with matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) is an efficient technology applied in plant metabolomics research. This technique allows for visualization of spatial distribution of metabolites such as: lipids, proteins, peptides and DNA sequences, by determining the x, y coordinates of the compounds exactly in plant tissue. Simplicity of the tissue preparation without the need of prior exact knowledge about the analytes is a great advantage of this method. In this review, we provide an overview of experimental workflow including sample preparation, data acquisition and analysis, methodology, and some recent applications of MALDI MS imaging in plant metabolomics research.

PMID: 32853516 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Three promising antimycobacterial medicinal plants reviewed as potential sources of drug hit candidates against multidrug-resistant tuberculosis.

1 month ago
Related Articles

Three promising antimycobacterial medicinal plants reviewed as potential sources of drug hit candidates against multidrug-resistant tuberculosis.

Tuberculosis (Edinb). 2020 Aug 16;124:101987

Authors: Tuyiringire N, Deyno S, Weisheit A, Tolo CU, Tusubira D, Munyampundu JP, Ogwang PE, Muvunyi CM, Heyden YV

Abstract
Regimens of current drugs for tuberculosis are lengthy and are associated with many adverse effects. Currently, the emergence of different resistant strains has been observed. This urges a need for the discovery and development of novel drugs. The main sources of drug lead candidates are based on natural products. Zanthoxylum leprieurii, Lantana camara, and Cryptolepis Sanguinolenta are among the plants that have antimycobacterial activity. Recent technological methods, such as metabolomics, can rapidly detect and identify active compounds from medicinal plants. In this review, we aim to provide an overview and discussion of the antimycobacterial activity, phytochemical analysis and toxicity profile of these plants and their products as well as the potential of metabolomic fingerprinting of medicinal plants with a given activity on microbes, in the search for the potential drug hit molecules. The information for this review was extracted from databases such as Excerpta Medica Database, Google Scholar, Springer, and PubMed Central. Primary studies, using a combination of the keywords antimycobacterial medicinal plant, multidrug-resistant tuberculosis, phytochemistry, toxicity, Zanthoxylum leprieurii, Lantana camara, Cryptolepis sanguinolenta, and plant metabolomics/metabolic fingerprinting of plant extracts, have been considered. The above-mentioned plant species showed antimycobacterial activity against drug-resistant strains of M. tuberculosis. They may provide potential candidates for novel drugs against multidrug-resistant tuberculosis. However, extensive work is still needed. To our knowledge, there is no or limited literature that reports the metabolic fingerprints of these plants. The analysis of the metabolite fingerprints of medicinal plants with similar antimicrobial activity could be important to determine whether the activity results from common metabolites within different plant species. This review shows that these plants are potential candidates to provide drug hits against multidrug-resistant tuberculosis strains. Future studies of compound optimization, in vivo safety and efficacy, as well as of the specific mechanisms of action are however required.

PMID: 32841928 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Discovery of quality-marker ingredients of Panax quinquefolius driven by high-throughput chinmedomics approach.

1 month ago
Related Articles

Discovery of quality-marker ingredients of Panax quinquefolius driven by high-throughput chinmedomics approach.

Phytomedicine. 2020 Aug;74:152928

Authors: Xiong H, Zhang AH, Zhao QQ, Yan GL, Sun H, Wang XJ

Abstract
BACKGROUND: Quality control of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) has always been a hot issue to TCM. However, due to the complexity of TCM ingredients, the current quality standards of TCM have problems that are difficult to guarantee clinical efficacy. American ginseng, the dried roots of Pawajc quinquefolium L. (Araliaceae), is a valuable herbal medicine due to various pharmacological effects and huge health benefit, which are associated with numerous active ingredients such as ginsenosides. Although a large number of studies have investigated the active ingredients of American ginseng, Q-markers reflecting comprehensive review on its efficacies has yet been unrevealed.
PURPOSE: The study aims to discover the Q-markers of Panax quinquefolius (American ginseng), provides a powerful method to clarify the significant ingredents of TCM and help further discovering extensive quality evaluation model,contributing to a significant improvement of TCM quality standard.
METHODS: Mice general status, biochemical indexes assay, urine metabolic profile, and serum metabolic profile were utilized for model replication and efficacy evaluation. The in vitro and in vivo constituents of American ginseng using ultra-high performance liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS) with Serum Pharmacochemistry of TCM were in-depth investigated. Q-markers that were associated with core markers of therapeutic effects were excavated by a plotting of correlation between marker metabolites and serum constituents (PCMS) approach.
RESULTS: Correlation analysis of 41 blood and urine labeled metabolites with 14 serum components showed that 24-methyl-7-cholesten-3β-ol, zizybeoside II, betulin, ginsenoside Rd, cinnamyl alcohol, pseudoginsenoside F11 is highly correlated with the therapeutic effects of Compound Zaofan Pill (CZP), while pseudoginsenoside F11 and ginsenoside Rd are highly correlated with the therapeutic effects of American ginseng. The six absorbed blood compounds can be considered as potential Q-markers for compound, of which two compounds, such as pseudoginsenoside F11 and ginsenoside Rd, can be considered as potential Q-markers for American ginseng.
CONCLUSION: The study has demonstrated that the Chinmedomics is an effective, comprehensive and fire-new method for discovering the Q-markers of TCM, and it may be more reasonable choices to establish quality standards of TCM.

PMID: 31451286 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Unraveling Arbuscular Mycorrhiza-Induced Changes in Plant Primary and Secondary Metabolome.

1 month ago
Related Articles

Unraveling Arbuscular Mycorrhiza-Induced Changes in Plant Primary and Secondary Metabolome.

Metabolites. 2020 Aug 18;10(8):

Authors: Kaur S, Suseela V

Abstract
Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) is among the most ubiquitous plant mutualists that enhance plant growth and yield by facilitating the uptake of phosphorus and water. The countless interactions that occur in the rhizosphere between plants and its AMF symbionts are mediated through the plant and fungal metabolites that ensure partner recognition, colonization, and establishment of the symbiotic association. The colonization and establishment of AMF reprogram the metabolic pathways of plants, resulting in changes in the primary and secondary metabolites, which is the focus of this review. During initial colonization, plant-AMF interaction is facilitated through the regulation of signaling and carotenoid pathways. After the establishment, the AMF symbiotic association influences the primary metabolism of the plant, thus facilitating the sharing of photosynthates with the AMF. The carbon supply to AMF leads to the transport of a significant amount of sugars to the roots, and also alters the tricarboxylic acid cycle. Apart from the nutrient exchange, the AMF imparts abiotic stress tolerance in host plants by increasing the abundance of several primary metabolites. Although AMF initially suppresses the defense response of the host, it later primes the host for better defense against biotic and abiotic stresses by reprogramming the biosynthesis of secondary metabolites. Additionally, the influence of AMF on signaling pathways translates to enhanced phytochemical content through the upregulation of the phenylpropanoid pathway, which improves the quality of the plant products. These phytometabolome changes induced by plant-AMF interaction depends on the identity of both plant and AMF species, which could contribute to the differential outcome of this symbiotic association. A better understanding of the phytochemical landscape shaped by plant-AMF interactions would enable us to harness this symbiotic association to enhance plant performance, particularly under non-optimal growing conditions.

PMID: 32824704 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Therapeutic potential of phenylethanoid glycosides: A systematic review.

1 month 2 weeks ago
Related Articles

Therapeutic potential of phenylethanoid glycosides: A systematic review.

Med Res Rev. 2020 Aug 10;:

Authors: Wu L, Georgiev MI, Cao H, Nahar L, El-Seedi HR, Sarker SD, Xiao J, Lu B

Abstract
Phenylethanoid glycosides (PhGs) are generally water-soluble phenolic compounds that occur in many medicinal plants. Until June 2020, more than 572 PhGs have been isolated and identified. PhGs possess antibacterial, anticancer, antidiabetic, anti-inflammatory, antiobesity, antioxidant, antiviral, and neuroprotective properties. Despite these promising benefits, PhGs have failed to fulfill their therapeutic applications due to their poor bioavailability. The attempts to understand their metabolic pathways to improve their bioavailability are investigated. In this review article, we will first summarize the number of PhGs compounds which is not accurate in the literature. The latest information on the biological activities, structure-activity relationships, mechanisms, and especially the clinical applications of PhGs will be reviewed. The bioavailability of PhGs will be summarized and factors leading to the low bioavailability will be analyzed. Recent advances in methods such as bioenhancers and nanotechnology to improve the bioavailability of PhGs are also summarized. The existing scientific gaps of PhGs in knowledge are also discussed, highlighting research directions in the future.

PMID: 32779240 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Mediator function in plant metabolism revealed by large-scale biology.

1 month 2 weeks ago
Related Articles

Mediator function in plant metabolism revealed by large-scale biology.

J Exp Bot. 2019 11 18;70(21):5995-6003

Authors: Mao X, Weake VM, Chapple C

Abstract
Mediator is a multisubunit transcriptional co-regulator that is involved in the regulation of an array of processes including plant metabolism. The pathways regulated by Mediator-dependent processes include those for the synthesis of phenylpropanoids (MED5), cellulose (MED16), lipids (MED15 and CDK8), and the regulation of iron homeostasis (MED16 and MED25). Traditional genetic and biochemical approaches laid the foundation for our understanding of Mediator function, but recent transcriptomic and metabolomic studies have provided deeper insights into how specific subunits cooperate in the regulation of plant metabolism. In this review, we highlight recent developments in the investigation of Mediator and plant metabolism, with particular emphasis on the large-scale biology studies of med mutants.

PMID: 31504746 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Regulation of Carbon Metabolism by Environmental Conditions: A Perspective From Diatoms and Other Chromalveolates.

1 month 2 weeks ago
Related Articles

Regulation of Carbon Metabolism by Environmental Conditions: A Perspective From Diatoms and Other Chromalveolates.

Front Plant Sci. 2020;11:1033

Authors: Launay H, Huang W, Maberly SC, Gontero B

Abstract
Diatoms belong to a major, diverse and species-rich eukaryotic clade, the Heterokonta, within the polyphyletic chromalveolates. They evolved as a result of secondary endosymbiosis with one or more Plantae ancestors, but their precise evolutionary history is enigmatic. Nevertheless, this has conferred them with unique structural and biochemical properties that have allowed them to flourish in a wide range of different environments and cope with highly variable conditions. We review the effect of pH, light and dark, and CO2 concentration on the regulation of carbon uptake and assimilation. We discuss the regulation of the Calvin-Benson-Bassham cycle, glycolysis, lipid synthesis, and carbohydrate synthesis at the level of gene transcripts (transcriptomics), proteins (proteomics) and enzyme activity. In contrast to Viridiplantae where redox regulation of metabolic enzymes is important, it appears to be less common in diatoms, based on the current evidence, but regulation at the transcriptional level seems to be widespread. The role of post-translational modifications such as phosphorylation, glutathionylation, etc., and of protein-protein interactions, has been overlooked and should be investigated further. Diatoms and other chromalveolates are understudied compared to the Viridiplantae, especially given their ecological importance, but we believe that the ever-growing number of sequenced genomes combined with proteomics, metabolomics, enzyme measurements, and the application of novel techniques will provide a better understanding of how this important group of algae maintain their productivity under changing conditions.

PMID: 32765548 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Stable Isotope Tracing Metabolomics to Investigate the Metabolic Activity of Bioactive Compounds for Cancer Prevention and Treatment.

1 month 2 weeks ago
Related Articles

Stable Isotope Tracing Metabolomics to Investigate the Metabolic Activity of Bioactive Compounds for Cancer Prevention and Treatment.

Cancers (Basel). 2020 Aug 03;12(8):

Authors: Choudhury FK, Hackman GL, Lodi A, Tiziani S

Abstract
A major hallmark of cancer is the metabolic reprogramming of cancer cells to fuel tumor growth and proliferation. Various plant-derived bioactive compounds efficiently target the metabolic vulnerabilities of cancer cells and exhibit potential as emerging therapeutic agents. Due to their safety and common use as dietary components, they are also ideal for cancer prevention. However, to render their use as efficient as possible, the mechanism of action of these phytochemicals needs to be well characterized. Stable isotope tracing is an essential technology to study the molecular mechanisms by which nutraceuticals modulate and target cancer metabolism. The use of positionally labeled tracers as exogenous nutrients and the monitoring of their downstream metabolites labeling patterns enable the analysis of the specific metabolic pathway activity, via the relative production and consumption of the labeled metabolites. Although stable isotope tracing metabolomics is a powerful tool to investigate the molecular activity of bioactive compounds as well as to design synergistic nutraceutical combinations, this methodology is still underutilized. This review aims to investigate the research efforts and potentials surrounding the use of stable isotope tracing metabolomics to examine the metabolic alterations mediated by bioactive compounds in cancer.

PMID: 32756373 [PubMed]

Checked
2 hours 39 minutes ago
Plant Metabolomics Reviews
NCBI: db=pubmed; Term=Plant Metabolomics review
Subscribe to Plant Metabolomics Reviews feed