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Synergy and antagonism in natural product extracts: when 1 + 1 does not equal 2.

December 18, 2019 - 8:18am
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Synergy and antagonism in natural product extracts: when 1 + 1 does not equal 2.

Nat Prod Rep. 2019 06 19;36(6):869-888

Authors: Caesar LK, Cech NB

Abstract
Covering: 2000 to 2019 According to a 2012 survey from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, approximately 18% of the U.S. population uses natural products (including plant-based or botanical preparations) for treatment or prevention of disease. The use of plant-based medicines is even more prevalent in developing countries, where for many they constitute the primary health care modality. Proponents of the medicinal use of natural product mixtures often claim that they are more effective than purified compounds due to beneficial "synergistic" interactions. A less-discussed phenomenon, antagonism, in which effects of active constituents are masked by other compounds in a complex mixture, also occurs in natural product mixtures. Synergy and antagonism are notoriously difficult to study in a rigorous fashion, particularly given that natural products chemistry research methodology is typically devoted to reducing complexity and identifying single active constituents for drug development. This report represents a critical review with commentary about the current state of the scientific literature as it relates to studying combination effects (including both synergy and antagonism) in natural product extracts. We provide particular emphasis on analytical and Big Data approaches for identifying synergistic or antagonistic combinations and elucidating the mechanisms that underlie their interactions. Specific case studies of botanicals in which synergistic interactions have been documented are also discussed. The topic of synergy is important given that consumer use of botanical natural products and associated safety concerns continue to garner attention by the public and the media. Guidance by the natural products community is needed to provide strategies for effective evaluation of safety and toxicity of botanical mixtures and to drive discovery in botanical natural product research.

PMID: 31187844 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Innovative omics-based approaches for prioritisation and targeted isolation of natural products - new strategies for drug discovery.

December 18, 2019 - 8:18am
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Innovative omics-based approaches for prioritisation and targeted isolation of natural products - new strategies for drug discovery.

Nat Prod Rep. 2019 06 19;36(6):855-868

Authors: Wolfender JL, Litaudon M, Touboul D, Queiroz EF

Abstract
Covering: 2013 to 2019 The exploration of the chemical diversity of extracts from various biological sources has led to major drug discoveries. Over the past two decades, despite the introduction of advanced methodologies for natural product (NP) research (e.g., dereplication and high content screening), successful accounts of the validation of NPs as lead therapeutic candidates have been limited. In this context, one of the main challenges faced is related to working with crude natural extracts because of their complex composition and the inadequacies of classical bioguided isolation studies given the pace of high-throughput screening campaigns. In line with the development of metabolomics, genomics and chemometrics, significant advances in metabolite profiling have been achieved and have generated high-quality massive genome and metabolome data on natural extracts. The unambiguous identification of each individual NP in an extract using generic methods remains challenging. However, the establishment of structural links among NPs via molecular network analysis and the determination of common features of extract composition have provided invaluable information to the scientific community. In this context, new multi-informational-based profiling approaches integrating taxonomic and/or bioactivity data can hold promise for the discovery and development of new bioactive compounds and return NPs back to an exciting era of development. In this article, we examine recent studies that have the potential to improve the efficiency of NP prioritisation and to accelerate the targeted isolation of key NPs. Perspectives on the field's evolution are discussed.

PMID: 31073562 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Reactive oxygen species detection-approaches in plants: insights into genetically encoded FRET-based sensors.

December 15, 2019 - 6:18am
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Reactive oxygen species detection-approaches in plants: insights into genetically encoded FRET-based sensors.

J Biotechnol. 2019 Dec 10;:

Authors: Anjum NA, Amreen, Tantray AY, Khan NA, Ahmad A

Abstract
The generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) (and their reaction products) in abiotic stressed plants can be simultaneous. Hence, it is very difficult to establish individual roles of ROS (and their reaction products) in plants particularly under abiotic stress conditions. It is highly imperative to detect ROS (and their reaction products) and ascertain their role in vivo and also to point their optimal level in order to unveil exact relation of ROS (and their reaction products) with the major components of ROS-controlling systems. Förster Resonance Energy Transfer (FRET) technology enables us with high potential for monitoring and quantification of ROS and redox variations, avoiding some of the obstacles presented by small-molecule fluorescent dyes. This paper aims to: (i) introduce ROS and overview ROS-chemistry and ROS-accrued major damages to major biomolecules; (ii) highlight invasive and non-invasive approaches for the detection of ROS (and their reaction products); (iii) appraise literature available on genetically encoded ROS (and their reaction products)-sensors based on FRET technology, and (iv) enlighten so far unexplored aspects in the current context. The studies integrating the outcomes of the FRET-based ROS-detection approaches with the OMICS (genetics, genomics, proteomics, and metabolomics) would enlighten insights into real-time ROS and redox dynamics, and their signaling at cellular and subcellular levels in living cells.

PMID: 31836526 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Applications of metabolomics in the research of soybean plant under abiotic stress.

December 14, 2019 - 8:19am
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Applications of metabolomics in the research of soybean plant under abiotic stress.

Food Chem. 2019 Dec 02;310:125914

Authors: Feng Z, Ding C, Li W, Wang D, Cui D

Abstract
Qualitative and quantitative metabolomics analysis of all small-molecule metabolites in organisms is an emerging omics technology alongside genomics and proteomics. Plant metabolites are extremely diverse both within species and in terms of their physiological function. Plant metabolomics studies use mainly liquid/gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC/GC-MS) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) techniques combined with chemometrics and multivariate statistical analysis to analyze plant metabolites, and metabolomics plays a key role in agricultural and food science research. In this review, we discuss the status of metabolomics in soybean in response to abiotic stresses such as drought, heat, salinity, flooding, chilling and heavy metal stresses and analyze the challenges and opportunities. Furthermore, the notable metabolites detected in response to different stresses are summarized to provide a reference for applications of metabolomics in soybean research.

PMID: 31835223 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

The dynamic responses of plant physiology and metabolism during environmental stress progression.

December 12, 2019 - 6:18am
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The dynamic responses of plant physiology and metabolism during environmental stress progression.

Mol Biol Rep. 2019 Dec 10;:

Authors: Singh AK, Dhanapal S, Yadav BS

Abstract
At adverse environmental conditions, plants produce various kinds of primary and secondary metabolites to protect themselves. Both primary and secondary metabolites play a significant role during the heat, drought, salinity, genotoxic and cold conditions. A multigene response is activated during the progression of these stresses in the plants which stimulate changes in various signaling molecules, amino acids, proteins, primary and secondary metabolites. Plant metabolism is perturbed because of either the inhibition of metabolic enzymes, shortage of substrates, excess demand for specific compounds or a combination of these factors. In this review, we aim to present how plants synthesize different kinds of natural products during the perception of various abiotic stresses. We also discuss how time-scale variable stresses influence secondary metabolite profiles, could be used as a stress marker in plants. This article has the potential to get the attention of researchers working in the area of quantitative trait locus mapping using metabolites as well as metabolomics genome-wide association.

PMID: 31823123 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Pharmacometabonomics: The Prediction of Drug Effects Using Metabolic Profiling.

December 12, 2019 - 6:18am
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Pharmacometabonomics: The Prediction of Drug Effects Using Metabolic Profiling.

Handb Exp Pharmacol. 2019 Dec 11;:

Authors: Everett JR

Abstract
Metabonomics, also known as metabolomics, is concerned with the study of metabolite profiles in humans, animals, plants and other systems in order to assess their health or other status and their responses to experimental interventions. Metabonomics is thus widely used in disease diagnosis and in understanding responses to therapies such as drug administration. Pharmacometabonomics, also known as pharmacometabolomics, is a related methodology but with a prognostic as opposed to diagnostic thrust. Pharmacometabonomics aims to predict drug effects including efficacy, safety, metabolism and pharmacokinetics, prior to drug administration, via an analysis of pre-dose metabolite profiles. This article will review the development of pharmacometabonomics as a new field of science that has much promise in helping to deliver more effective personalised medicine, a major goal of twenty-first century healthcare.

PMID: 31823071 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

TGFβ-induced metabolic reprogramming during epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition in cancer.

December 12, 2019 - 6:18am
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TGFβ-induced metabolic reprogramming during epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition in cancer.

Cell Mol Life Sci. 2019 Dec 10;:

Authors: Hua W, Ten Dijke P, Kostidis S, Giera M, Hornsveld M

Abstract
Metastasis is the most frequent cause of death in cancer patients. Epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is the process in which cells lose epithelial integrity and become motile, a critical step for cancer cell invasion, drug resistance and immune evasion. The transforming growth factor-β (TGFβ) signaling pathway is a major driver of EMT. Increasing evidence demonstrates that metabolic reprogramming is a hallmark of cancer and extensive metabolic changes are observed during EMT. The aim of this review is to summarize and interconnect recent findings that illustrate how changes in glycolysis, mitochondrial, lipid and choline metabolism coincide and functionally contribute to TGFβ-induced EMT. We describe TGFβ signaling is involved in stimulating both glycolysis and mitochondrial respiration. Interestingly, the subsequent metabolic consequences for the redox state and lipid metabolism in cancer cells are found to be in favor of EMT as well. Combined we illustrate that a better understanding of the mechanistic links between TGFβ signaling, cancer metabolism and EMT holds promising strategies for cancer therapy, some of which are already actively being explored in the clinic.

PMID: 31822964 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Advances in molecular biology of Paeonia L.

December 1, 2019 - 8:18am
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Advances in molecular biology of Paeonia L.

Planta. 2019 Nov 29;251(1):23

Authors: Fan Y, Wang Q, Dong Z, Yin Y, Teixeira da Silva JA, Yu X

Abstract
Molecular biology can serve as a tool to solve the limitations of traditional breeding and cultivation techniques related to flower patterns, the improvement of flower color, and the regulation of flowering and stress resistance. These characteristics of molecular biology ensured its significant role in improving the efficiency of breeding and germplasm amelioration of Paeonia. This review describes the advances in molecular biology of Paeonia, including: (1) the application of molecular markers; (2) genomics, transcriptomics, proteomics, metabolomics, and microRNA studies; (3) studies of functional genes; and (4) molecular biology techniques. This review also points out select limitations in current molecular biology, analyzes the direction of Paeonia molecular biology research, and provides advice for future research objectives.

PMID: 31784828 [PubMed - in process]

Advances in Understanding the Physiological and Molecular Responses of Sugar Beet to Salt Stress.

November 30, 2019 - 6:17am
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Advances in Understanding the Physiological and Molecular Responses of Sugar Beet to Salt Stress.

Front Plant Sci. 2019;10:1431

Authors: Lv X, Chen S, Wang Y

Abstract
Soil salinity is a major environmental stress on crop growth and productivity. A better understanding of the molecular and physiological mechanisms underlying salt tolerance will facilitate efforts to improve crop performance under salinity. Sugar beet is considered to be a salt-tolerant crop, and it is therefore a good model for studying salt acclimation in crops. Recently, many determinants of salt tolerance and regulatory mechanisms have been studied by using physiological and 'omics approaches. This review provides an overview of recent research advances regarding sugar beet response and tolerance to salt stress. We summarize the physiological and molecular mechanisms involved, including maintenance of ion homeostasis, accumulation of osmotic-adjustment substances, and antioxidant regulation. We focus on progress in deciphering the mechanisms using 'omic technologies and describe the key candidate genes involved in sugar beet salt tolerance. Understanding the response and tolerance of sugar beet to salt stress will enable translational application to other crops and thus will have significant impacts on agricultural sustainability and global food security.

PMID: 31781145 [PubMed]

Advances in Omics Approaches for Abiotic Stress Tolerance in Tomato.

November 29, 2019 - 7:17pm
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Advances in Omics Approaches for Abiotic Stress Tolerance in Tomato.

Biology (Basel). 2019 Nov 25;8(4):

Authors: Chaudhary J, Khatri P, Singla P, Kumawat S, Kumari A, R V, Vikram A, Jindal SK, Kardile H, Kumar R, Sonah H, Deshmukh R

Abstract
Tomato, one of the most important crops worldwide, has a high demand in the fresh fruit market and processed food industries. Despite having considerably high productivity, continuous supply as per the market demand is hard to achieve, mostly because of periodic losses occurring due to biotic as well as abiotic stresses. Although tomato is a temperate crop, it is grown in almost all the climatic zones because of widespread demand, which makes it challenge to adapt in diverse conditions. Development of tomato cultivars with enhanced abiotic stress tolerance is one of the most sustainable approaches for its successful production. In this regard, efforts are being made to understand the stress tolerance mechanism, gene discovery, and interaction of genetic and environmental factors. Several omics approaches, tools, and resources have already been developed for tomato growing. Modern sequencing technologies have greatly accelerated genomics and transcriptomics studies in tomato. These advancements facilitate Quantitative trait loci (QTL) mapping, genome-wide association studies (GWAS), and genomic selection (GS). However, limited efforts have been made in other omics branches like proteomics, metabolomics, and ionomics. Extensive cataloging of omics resources made here has highlighted the need for integration of omics approaches for efficient utilization of resources and a better understanding of the molecular mechanism. The information provided here will be helpful to understand the plant responses and the genetic regulatory networks involved in abiotic stress tolerance and efficient utilization of omics resources for tomato crop improvement.

PMID: 31775241 [PubMed]

Towards Exploitation of Adaptive Traits for Climate-Resilient Smart Pulses.

November 28, 2019 - 7:17am
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Towards Exploitation of Adaptive Traits for Climate-Resilient Smart Pulses.

Int J Mol Sci. 2019 Jun 18;20(12):

Authors: Kumar J, Choudhary AK, Gupta DS, Kumar S

Abstract
Pulses are the main source of protein and minerals in the vegetarian diet. These are primarily cultivated on marginal lands with few inputs in several resource-poor countries of the world, including several in South Asia. Their cultivation in resource-scarce conditions exposes them to various abiotic and biotic stresses, leading to significant yield losses. Furthermore, climate change due to global warming has increased their vulnerability to emerging new insect pests and abiotic stresses that can become even more serious in the coming years. The changing climate scenario has made it more challenging to breed and develop climate-resilient smart pulses. Although pulses are climate smart, as they simultaneously adapt to and mitigate the effects of climate change, their narrow genetic diversity has always been a major constraint to their improvement for adaptability. However, existing genetic diversity still provides opportunities to exploit novel attributes for developing climate-resilient cultivars. The mining and exploitation of adaptive traits imparting tolerance/resistance to climate-smart pulses can be accelerated further by using cutting-edge approaches of biotechnology such as transgenics, genome editing, and epigenetics. This review discusses various classical and molecular approaches and strategies to exploit adaptive traits for breeding climate-smart pulses.

PMID: 31216660 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Experimental Design and Sample Preparation in Forest Tree Metabolomics.

November 27, 2019 - 8:23am
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Experimental Design and Sample Preparation in Forest Tree Metabolomics.

Metabolites. 2019 Nov 22;9(12):

Authors: Rodrigues AM, Ribeiro-Barros AI, António C

Abstract
Appropriate experimental design and sample preparation are key steps in metabolomics experiments, highly influencing the biological interpretation of the results. The sample preparation workflow for plant metabolomics studies includes several steps before metabolite extraction and analysis. These include the optimization of laboratory procedures, which should be optimized for different plants and tissues. This is particularly the case for trees, whose tissues are complex matrices to work with due to the presence of several interferents, such as oleoresins, cellulose. A good experimental design, tree tissue harvest conditions, and sample preparation are crucial to ensure consistency and reproducibility of the metadata among datasets. In this review, we discuss the main challenges when setting up a forest tree metabolomics experiment for mass spectrometry (MS)-based analysis covering all technical aspects from the biological question formulation and experimental design to sample processing and metabolite extraction and data acquisition. We also highlight the importance of forest tree metadata standardization in metabolomics studies.

PMID: 31766588 [PubMed]

Contribution of Berry Polyphenols to the Human Metabolome.

November 24, 2019 - 8:19am
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Contribution of Berry Polyphenols to the Human Metabolome.

Molecules. 2019 Nov 20;24(23):

Authors: Chandra P, Rathore AS, Kay KL, Everhart JL, Curtis P, Burton-Freeman B, Cassidy A, Kay CD

Abstract
Diets rich in berries provide health benefits, however, the contribution of berry phytochemicals to the human metabolome is largely unknown. The present study aimed to establish the impact of berry phytochemicals on the human metabolome. A "systematic review strategy" was utilized to characterize the phytochemical composition of the berries most commonly consumed in the USA; (poly)phenols, primarily anthocyanins, comprised the majority of reported plant secondary metabolites. A reference standard library and tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) quantitative metabolomics methodology were developed and applied to serum/plasma samples from a blueberry and a strawberry intervention, revealing a diversity of benzoic, cinnamic, phenylacetic, 3-(phenyl)propanoic and hippuric acids, and benzyldehydes. 3-Phenylpropanoic, 2-hydroxybenzoic, and hippuric acid were highly abundant (mean > 1 µM). Few metabolites at concentrations above 100 nM changed significantly in either intervention. Significant intervention effects (P < 0.05) were observed for plasma/serum 2-hydroxybenzoic acid and hippuric acid in the blueberry intervention, and for 3-methoxyphenylacetic acid and 4-hydroxyphenylacetic acid in the strawberry intervention. However, significant within-group effects for change from baseline were prevalent, suggesting that high inter-individual variability precluded significant treatment effects. Berry consumption in general appears to cause a fluctuation in the pools of small molecule metabolites already present at baseline, rather than the appearance of unique berry-derived metabolites, which likely reflects the ubiquitous nature of (poly)phenols in the background diet.

PMID: 31757061 [PubMed - in process]

De Novo Domestication: An Alternative Route toward New Crops for the Future.

November 20, 2019 - 8:18am
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De Novo Domestication: An Alternative Route toward New Crops for the Future.

Mol Plant. 2019 05 06;12(5):615-631

Authors: Fernie AR, Yan J

Abstract
Current global agricultural production must feed over 7 billion people. However, productivity varies greatly across the globe and is under threat from both increased competitions for land and climate change and associated environmental deterioration. Moreover, the increase in human population size and dietary changes are putting an ever greater burden on agriculture. The majority of this burden is met by the cultivation of a very small number of species, largely in locations that differ from their origin of domestication. Recent technological advances have raised the possibility of de novo domestication of wild plants as a viable solution for designing ideal crops while maintaining food security and a more sustainable low-input agriculture. Here we discuss how the discovery of multiple key domestication genes alongside the development of technologies for accurate manipulation of several target genes simultaneously renders de novo domestication a route toward crops for the future.

PMID: 30999078 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Biotic and Abiotic Constraints in Mungbean Production-Progress in Genetic Improvement.

November 19, 2019 - 8:18am
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Biotic and Abiotic Constraints in Mungbean Production-Progress in Genetic Improvement.

Front Plant Sci. 2019;10:1340

Authors: Nair RM, Pandey AK, War AR, Hanumantharao B, Shwe T, Alam A, Pratap A, Malik SR, Karimi R, Mbeyagala EK, Douglas CA, Rane J, Schafleitner R

Abstract
Mungbean [Vigna radiata (L.) R. Wilczek var. radiata] is an important food and cash legume crop in Asia. Development of short duration varieties has paved the way for the expansion of mungbean into other regions such as Sub-Saharan Africa and South America. Mungbean productivity is constrained by biotic and abiotic factors. Bruchids, whitefly, thrips, stem fly, aphids, and pod borers are the major insect-pests. The major diseases of mungbean are yellow mosaic, anthracnose, powdery mildew, Cercospora leaf spot, halo blight, bacterial leaf spot, and tan spot. Key abiotic stresses affecting mungbean production are drought, waterlogging, salinity, and heat stress. Mungbean breeding has been critical in developing varieties with resistance to biotic and abiotic factors, but there are many constraints still to address that include the precise and accurate identification of resistance source(s) for some of the traits and the traits conferred by multi genes. Latest technologies in phenotyping, genomics, proteomics, and metabolomics could be of great help to understand insect/pathogen-plant, plant-environment interactions and the key components responsible for resistance to biotic and abiotic stresses. This review discusses current biotic and abiotic constraints in mungbean production and the challenges in genetic improvement.

PMID: 31736995 [PubMed]

Application of capillary electrophoretic methods for the analysis of plant phloem and xylem saps composition: a review.

November 19, 2019 - 8:18am
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Application of capillary electrophoretic methods for the analysis of plant phloem and xylem saps composition: a review.

J Sep Sci. 2019 Nov 18;:

Authors: Varhaníková N, Řemínek R, Foret F

Abstract
Plant vascular tissue is essential for the exchange of water, nutrients, metabolic products, and signals among distant organs in cormophytes. The compositions of phloem and xylem saps are highly dependent on many internal and external factors, and thus their analysis provides a valuable insight into plant physiology, growth, and development as well as nutrition status or presence of biotic or abiotic stresses. Capillary electrophoresis characterized by highly efficient separations and minuscule sample requirements represents a suitable analytical technique for this purpose because the sap constitutes a complex mixture with generally minimal availability. This review aims at providing a comprehensive overview of published capillary electrophoretic methods for the analysis of primary components present in the phloem and xylem saps of higher plants. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

PMID: 31736263 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Present status of Catharanthus roseus monoterpenoid indole alkaloids engineering in homo- and hetero-logous systems.

November 16, 2019 - 8:19am
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Present status of Catharanthus roseus monoterpenoid indole alkaloids engineering in homo- and hetero-logous systems.

Biotechnol Lett. 2019 Nov 15;:

Authors: Sharma A, Amin D, Sankaranarayanan A, Arora R, Mathur AK

Abstract
Catharanthus roseus synthesizes one of the most structurally, chemically and biologically active phytomolecules monoterpenoids indole alkaloids (MIAs) with having a wide range of pharmaceutical activities. Being the sole source of antineoplastic MIAs vinblastine and vincristine C. roseus has become one of the most valued plant. The low in planta availability of these MIAs and unavailability of alternative chemical synthesis system has enhanced their demand and equally let to the exorbitant market cost. To bridge this gap alternative production systems have been investigated using MIAs metabolic engineering (ME) in the homologous and heterologous systems. The availability of improved recombinant technologies along with genomics and metabolomics tools has opened the door of tremendous new potentials of ME. To encash these potentials of ME for MIAs pathway, efforts were made by expressing constitutive structure biosynthesis enzymes, transporters, and transcription factors of C. roseus MIAs biosynthesis in both homologous and heterologous systems. Here we review the knowledge of C. roseus MIAs pathway metabolic engineering in homologous and heterologous systems, gained in the past 35 years of C. roseus research.

PMID: 31729591 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

A Bioinformatics Guide to Plant Microbiome Analysis.

November 12, 2019 - 6:19am
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A Bioinformatics Guide to Plant Microbiome Analysis.

Front Plant Sci. 2019;10:1313

Authors: Lucaciu R, Pelikan C, Gerner SM, Zioutis C, Köstlbacher S, Marx H, Herbold CW, Schmidt H, Rattei T

Abstract
Recent evidence for intimate relationship of plants with their microbiota shows that plants host individual and diverse microbial communities that are essential for their survival. Understanding their relatedness using genome-based and high-throughput techniques remains a hot topic in microbiome research. Molecular analysis of the plant holobiont necessitates the application of specific sampling and preparatory steps that also consider sources of unwanted information, such as soil, co-amplified plant organelles, human DNA, and other contaminations. Here, we review state-of-the-art and present practical guidelines regarding experimental and computational aspects to be considered in molecular plant-microbiome studies. We discuss sequencing and "omics" techniques with a focus on the requirements needed to adapt these methods to individual research approaches. The choice of primers and sequence databases is of utmost importance for amplicon sequencing, while the assembly and binning of shotgun metagenomic sequences is crucial to obtain quality data. We discuss specific bioinformatic workflows to overcome the limitation of genome database resources and for covering large eukaryotic genomes such as fungi. In transcriptomics, it is necessary to account for the separation of host mRNA or dual-RNAseq data. Metaproteomics approaches provide a snapshot of the protein abundances within a plant tissue which requires the knowledge of complete and well-annotated plant genomes, as well as microbial genomes. Metabolomics offers a powerful tool to detect and quantify small molecules and molecular changes at the plant-bacteria interface if the necessary requirements with regard to (secondary) metabolite databases are considered. We highlight data integration and complementarity which should help to widen our understanding of the interactions among individual players of the plant holobiont in the future.

PMID: 31708944 [PubMed]

Strategic enhancement of genetic gain for nutraceutical development in buckwheat: A genomics-driven perspective.

November 11, 2019 - 8:19am
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Strategic enhancement of genetic gain for nutraceutical development in buckwheat: A genomics-driven perspective.

Biotechnol Adv. 2019 Nov 07;:107479

Authors: Joshi DC, Zhang K, Wang C, Chandora R, Khurshid M, Li J, He M, Georgiev MI, Zhou M

Abstract
Buckwheat (Fagopyrum spp.) under the family Polygonaceae is an ancient pseudocereal with stupendous but less studied nutraceutical properties. The gluten free nature of protein, balanced amino acid profile and health promoting bioactive flavonoids make it a golden crop of future. Besides a scanty basic research, not much attention has been paid to the improvement of plant type and breeding of nutraceutical traits. Scanning of scientific literature indicates that adequate genetic variation exists for agronomic and nutritional traits in mainstream and wild gene pool of buckwheat. However, the currently employed conventional approaches together with poorly understood genetic mechanisms restrict effective utilization of the existing genetic variation in nutraceutical breeding of buckwheat. The latest trends in buckwheat genomics, particularly avalilabity of draft genome sequences for both the cultivated species (F. esculentum and F.tataricum) hold immense potential to overcome these limitations. Utilizing the transgenic hairy rot cultures, role of various transcription factors and gene families have been deduced in production and biosynthesis of bioactive flavonoids. Further, the acquisition of high-density genomics data coupled with the next-generation phenotyping will certainly improve our understanding of underlying genetic regulation of nutraceutical traits. The present paper highlights the application of multilayered omics interventions for tailoring a nutrient rich buckwheat cultivar and nutraceutical product development.

PMID: 31707074 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Next-generation Metabolomics in the Development of New Antidepressants: Using Albiflorin as an Example.

November 7, 2019 - 3:18pm
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Next-generation Metabolomics in the Development of New Antidepressants: Using Albiflorin as an Example.

Curr Pharm Des. 2018;24(22):2530-2540

Authors: Han J, Xia Y, Lin L, Zhang Z, Tian H, Li K

Abstract
Depression is a highly prevalent disorder that affects more than 300 million adults worldwide in 2015. Depression also frequently coexists with many other conditions such as osteoporosis and one-third of the Intensive Care Unit (ICU) survivors had depressive symptoms. Antidepressants have become the most commonly prescribed drugs in the United States. In addition to the regular process, drug discovery and development (R&D) for depression presents extra challenges because of the heterogeneity of the symptoms and various co-occurring disorders. Botanical medicine with multi-functional nature has been proposed to be more effective, providing rapid control of core and comorbid conditions of depression. With the technical advances in analytical instruments, metabolomics is entering into a "new generation". Next-generation metabolomics (NGM) has the capability to comprehensively characterize drug-induced metabolic changes in the biological systems. NGM has demonstrated great potential in all the stages of pharmaceutical R&D in the last 10 years. Albiflorin isolated from Peony roots is a promising drug candidate with multi-target for depression and is currently under development by Beijing Wonner Biotech. In this work, we summarized the common analytical platforms for NGM and its main applications in drug R&D. We used albiflorin as an example to illustrate how NGM improves our understanding of drug candidate actions and facilitates drug safety evaluation. Future directions on how to expand the use of NGM for new antidepressant development in pharmaceutical industry were also discussed.

PMID: 30051781 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

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