Plant Metabolomics Reviews

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Advances in understanding salt tolerance in rice.

February 14, 2019 - 6:33am
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Advances in understanding salt tolerance in rice.

Theor Appl Genet. 2019 Feb 13;:

Authors: Ganie SA, Molla KA, Henry RJ, Bhat KV, Mondal TK

Abstract
KEY MESSAGE: This review presents a comprehensive overview of the recent research on rice salt tolerance in the areas of genomics, proteomics, metabolomics and chemical genomics. Salinity is one of the major constraints in rice cultivation globally. Traditionally, rice is a glycophyte except for a few genotypes that have been widely used in salinity tolerance breeding of rice. Both seedling and reproductive stages of rice are considered to be the salt-susceptible stages; however, research efforts have been biased towards improving the understanding of seedling-stage salt tolerance. An extensive literature survey indicated that there have been very few attempts to develop reproductive stage-specific salt tolerance in rice probably due to the lack of salt-tolerant phenotypes at the reproductive stage. Recently, the role of DNA methylation, genome duplication and codon usage bias in salinity tolerance of rice have been studied. Furthermore, the study of exogenous salt stress alleviants in rice has opened up another potential avenue for understanding and improving its salt tolerance. There is a need to not only generate additional genomic resources in the form of salt-responsive QTLs and molecular markers and to characterize the genes and their upstream regulatory regions, but also to use them to gain deep insights into the mechanisms useful for developing tolerant varieties. We analysed the genomic locations of diverse salt-responsive genomic resources and found that rice chromosomes 1-6 possess the majority of these salinity-responsive genomic resources. The review presents a comprehensive overview of the recent research on rice salt tolerance in the areas of genomics, proteomics, metabolomics and chemical genomics, which should help in understanding the molecular basis of salinity tolerance and its more effective improvement in rice.

PMID: 30759266 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Causes and solutions to "globesity": The new fa(s)t alarming global epidemic.

February 14, 2019 - 6:33am
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Causes and solutions to "globesity": The new fa(s)t alarming global epidemic.

Food Chem Toxicol. 2018 Nov;121:173-193

Authors: Vasileva LV, Marchev AS, Georgiev MI

Abstract
Diverse groups of factors are leading to increased weight gain and obesity, such as certain genetic phenotypes, neuroendocrine disturbances, the administration of some drugs, behavioral, social and environmental factors. The progressively escalating rates of overweight and obesity worldwide have led to an introduction of a new term "globesity". Excessive accumulation of body fat and especially of visceral adipose tissue is the main predisposing factor for the development of metabolic syndrome and other obesity related co-morbidities. At the present moment only few pharmacotherapeuticals are used for long-term treatment of obesity acting on narrow target spectra, e.g. pancreatic and gastric lipase inhibition, acting as adrenomimetics or activating the satiety centers in hypothalamus. Plant-based medications that accelerate weight loss, proved to be safe, effective and widely available, would be a preferable alternative for anti-obesity treatments. As plant extracts are multi-component systems they could also act by more than one mechanism, including decreased lipid absorption, decreased energy intake, increased energy expenditure, decreased pre-adipocyte differentiation and proliferation, decreased lipogenesis and increased lipolysis. The current review gives a summary of the risk factors for obesity development and its characteristics consequences. Current treatment options, combining lifestyle changes and conventional treatment with commercial anti-obesity drugs have been described as well. Special emphasis on in vitro, in vivo and human studies, of potential medicinal plant extracts and phytochemicals, such as polyphenols, terpenoids, alkaloids, saponins, able to modulate the molecular pathways and gene/protein expressions related to obesity, have been highlighted.

PMID: 30176311 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Genomics of the Asian rice gall midge and its interactions with rice.

February 14, 2019 - 6:33am
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Genomics of the Asian rice gall midge and its interactions with rice.

Curr Opin Insect Sci. 2017 02;19:76-81

Authors: Sinha DK, Atray I, Agarrwal R, Bentur JS, Nair S

Abstract
Understanding virulence and manipulative strategies of gall formers will reveal new facets of plant defense and insect counter defense. Among the gall midges, the Asian rice gall midge (AGM) has emerged as a model for studies on plant-insect interactions. Data from several genomics, transcriptomics and metabolomics studies have revealed diverse strategies adopted by AGM to successfully invade the host while overcoming its defense. Adaptive skills of AGM transcend from its genomic and transcriptomic make-up. Information arising from studies on genetics, mitochondrial genome and miRNAs, amongst other parameters, highlights AGM's capacity to maneuver the host defense, reorient host metabolome and redirect its morphogenesis.

PMID: 28521946 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Quality control of Hypericum perforatum L. analytical challenges and recent progress.

February 9, 2019 - 6:39am
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Quality control of Hypericum perforatum L. analytical challenges and recent progress.

J Pharm Pharmacol. 2019 Jan;71(1):15-37

Authors: Agapouda A, Booker A, Kiss T, Hohmann J, Heinrich M, Csupor D

Abstract
OBJECTIVES: The most widely applied qualitative and quantitative analytical methods in the quality control of Hypericum perforatum extracts will be reviewed, including routine analytical tools and most modern approaches.
KEY FINDINGS: Biologically active components of H. perforatum are chemically diverse; therefore, different chromatographic and detection methods are required for the comprehensive analysis of St. John's wort extracts. Naphthodianthrones, phloroglucinols and flavonoids are the most widely analysed metabolites of this plant. For routine quality control, detection of major compounds belonging to these groups seems to be sufficient; however, closer characterization requires the detection of minor compounds as well.
CONCLUSIONS: TLC and HPTLC are basic methods in the routine analysis, whereas HPLC-DAD is the most widely applied method for quantitative analysis due to its versatility. LC-MS is gaining importance in pharmacokinetic studies due to its sensitivity. Modern approaches, such as DNA barcoding, NIRS and NMR metabolomics, may offer new possibilities for the more detailed characterization of secondary metabolite profile of H. perforatum extracts.

PMID: 28266019 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Metal Toxicity and Resistance in Plants and Microorganisms in Terrestrial Ecosystems.

February 7, 2019 - 6:40am
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Metal Toxicity and Resistance in Plants and Microorganisms in Terrestrial Ecosystems.

Rev Environ Contam Toxicol. 2019 Feb 07;:

Authors: Narendrula-Kotha R, Theriault G, Mehes-Smith M, Kalubi K, Nkongolo K

Abstract
Metals are major abiotic stressors of many organisms, but their toxicity in plants is not as studied as in microorganisms and animals. Likewise, research in plant responses to metal contamination is sketchy. Candidate genes associated with metal resistance in plants have been recently discovered and characterized. Some mechanisms of plant adaptation to metal stressors have been now decrypted. New knowledge on microbial reaction to metal contamination and the relationship between bacterial, archaeal, and fungal resistance to metals has broadened our understanding of metal homeostasis in living organisms. Recent reviews on metal toxicity and resistance mechanisms focused only on the role of transcriptomics, proteomics, metabolomics, and ionomics. This review is a critical analysis of key findings on physiological and genetic processes in plants and microorganisms in responses to soil metal contaminations.

PMID: 30725190 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Preventive and Therapeutic Potentials of Anthocyanins in Diabetes and Associated Complications.

February 2, 2019 - 6:29pm
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Preventive and Therapeutic Potentials of Anthocyanins in Diabetes and Associated Complications.

Curr Med Chem. 2018;25(39):5347-5371

Authors: Putta S, Yarla NS, Kumar K E, Lakkappa DB, Kamal MA, Scotti L, Scotti MT, Ashraf GM, Rao BSB, D SK, Reddy GV, Tarasov VV, Imandi SB, Aliev G

Abstract
Diet is an essential factor affecting the development of and risk for diabetes mellitus. In search of preventative and therapeutic strategies, the potential role of certain foods and their bioactive compounds to prevent the pathogenesis associated with metabolic diseases is to be considered. Human consumption of anthocyanins is among the highest of all flavonoids. Epidemiological studies have suggested that the consumption of anthocyanins lowers the risk of diabetes and diabetic complications. Anthocyanins are important natural bioactive pigments responsible for red to blue colour of fruits, leaves, seeds, stems and flowers, which are present in a variety of plant species particularly in berries and cherries. A large number of bioactive anthocyanins, such as cyanidin, malvidin, delphinidin, pelargonidin, peonidin, petunidin and their metabolites have shown multiple biological activities with apparent effects on glucose absorption, glucose uptake, insulin secretion and sensitivity, on the enzymes involved in glucose metabolism, gene expressions, inflammatory mediators, glucose transporters in progression of diabetes and associated complications, such as diabetic retinopathy, nephropathy, neuropathy and diabetic vascular diseases. The versatility of the anthocyanins provides a promising approach for diabetes management than synthetic drugs. Here we summarize the effect of several anthocyanins on many in vitro, in vivo and clinical studies and also reveal the mechanisms which could prevent or reverse the underlying mechanisms of diabetic pathologies including promotion of antioxidant, antihyperlipidemic, anti-inflammatory and anti-apoptotic activities.

PMID: 29210634 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Tolerance of Iron-Deficient and -Toxic Soil Conditions in Rice.

January 31, 2019 - 6:58am
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Tolerance of Iron-Deficient and -Toxic Soil Conditions in Rice.

Plants (Basel). 2019 Jan 28;8(2):

Authors: Mahender A, Swamy BPM, Anandan A, Ali J

Abstract
Iron (Fe) deficiency and toxicity are the most widely prevalent soil-related micronutrient disorders in rice (Oryza sativa L.). Progress in rice cultivars with improved tolerance has been hampered by a poor understanding of Fe availability in the soil, the transportation mechanism, and associated genetic factors for the tolerance of Fe toxicity soil (FTS) or Fe deficiency soil (FDS) conditions. In the past, through conventional breeding approaches, rice varieties were developed especially suitable for low- and high-pH soils, which indirectly helped the varieties to tolerate FTS and FDS conditions. Rice-Fe interactions in the external environment of soil, internal homeostasis, and transportation have been studied extensively in the past few decades. However, the molecular and physiological mechanisms of Fe uptake and transport need to be characterized in response to the tolerance of morpho-physiological traits under Fe-toxic and -deficient soil conditions, and these traits need to be well integrated into breeding programs. A deeper understanding of the several factors that influence Fe absorption, uptake, and transport from soil to root and above-ground organs under FDS and FTS is needed to develop tolerant rice cultivars with improved grain yield. Therefore, the objective of this review paper is to congregate the different phenotypic screening methodologies for prospecting tolerant rice varieties and their responsible genetic traits, and Fe homeostasis related to all the known quantitative trait loci (QTLs), genes, and transporters, which could offer enormous information to rice breeders and biotechnologists to develop rice cultivars tolerant of Fe toxicity or deficiency. The mechanism of Fe regulation and transport from soil to grain needs to be understood in a systematic manner along with the cascade of metabolomics steps that are involved in the development of rice varieties tolerant of FTS and FDS. Therefore, the integration of breeding with advanced genome sequencing and omics technologies allows for the fine-tuning of tolerant genotypes on the basis of molecular genetics, and the further identification of novel genes and transporters that are related to Fe regulation from FTS and FDS conditions is incredibly important to achieve further success in this aspect.

PMID: 30696039 [PubMed]

Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli outwits hosts through sensing small molecules.

January 31, 2019 - 6:58am
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Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli outwits hosts through sensing small molecules.

Curr Opin Microbiol. 2018 02;41:83-88

Authors: Carlson-Banning KM, Sperandio V

Abstract
Small molecules help intestinal pathogens navigate the complex human gastrointestinal tract to exploit favorable microhabitats. These small molecules provide spatial landmarks for pathogens to regulate synthesis of virulence caches and are derived from the host, ingested plant and animal material, and the microbiota. Their concentrations and fluxes vary along the length of the gut and provide molecular signatures that are beginning to be explored through metabolomics and genetics. However, while many small molecules have been identified and are reviewed here, there are undoubtedly others that may also profoundly affect how enteric pathogens infect their hosts.

PMID: 29258058 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Selection and characterization of botanical natural products for research studies: a NaPDI center recommended approach.

January 27, 2019 - 6:27pm
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Selection and characterization of botanical natural products for research studies: a NaPDI center recommended approach.

Nat Prod Rep. 2019 Jan 25;:

Authors: Kellogg JJ, Paine MF, McCune JS, Oberlies NH, Cech NB

Abstract
Covering: up to the end of 2018Dietary supplements, which include botanical (plant-based) natural products, constitute a multi-billion-dollar industry in the US. Regulation and quality control for this industry is an ongoing challenge. While there is general agreement that rigorous scientific studies are needed to evaluate the safety and efficacy of botanical natural products used by consumers, researchers conducting such studies face a unique set of challenges. Botanical natural products are inherently complex mixtures, with composition that differs depending on myriad factors including variability in genetics, cultivation conditions, and processing methods. Unfortunately, many studies of botanical natural products are carried out with poorly characterized study material, such that the results are irreproducible and difficult to interpret. This review provides recommended approaches for addressing the critical questions that researchers must address prior to in vitro or in vivo (including clinical) evaluation of botanical natural products. We describe selection and authentication of botanical material and identification of key biologically active compounds, and compare state-of-the-art methodologies such as untargeted metabolomics with more traditional targeted methods of characterization. The topics are chosen to be of maximal relevance to researchers, and are reviewed critically with commentary as to which approaches are most practical and useful and what common pitfalls should be avoided.

PMID: 30681109 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Analytical Methods for Detection of Plant Metabolomes Changes in Response to Biotic and Abiotic Stresses.

January 20, 2019 - 6:53am
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Analytical Methods for Detection of Plant Metabolomes Changes in Response to Biotic and Abiotic Stresses.

Int J Mol Sci. 2019 Jan 17;20(2):

Authors: Piasecka A, Kachlicki P, Stobiecki M

Abstract
Abiotic and biotic stresses are the main reasons of substantial crop yield losses worldwide. Research devoted to reveal mechanisms of plant reactions during their interactions with the environment are conducted on the level of genome, transcriptome, proteome, and metabolome. Data obtained during these studies would permit to define biochemical and physiological mechanisms of plant resistance or susceptibility to affecting factors/stresses. Metabolomics based on mass spectrometric techniques is an important part of research conducted in the direction of breeding new varieties of crop plants tolerant to the affecting stresses and possessing good agronomical features. Studies of this kind are carried out on model, crop and resurrection plants. Metabolites profiling yields large sets of data and due to this fact numerous advanced statistical and bioinformatic methods permitting to obtain qualitative and quantitative evaluation of the results have been developed. Moreover, advanced integration of metabolomics data with these obtained on other omics levels: genome, transcriptome and proteome should be carried out. Such a holistic approach would bring us closer to understanding biochemical and physiological processes of the cell and whole plant interacting with the environment and further apply these observations in successful breeding of stress tolerant or resistant crop plants.

PMID: 30658398 [PubMed - in process]

Lipidomic Analysis: From Archaea to Mammals.

January 15, 2019 - 7:05pm
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Lipidomic Analysis: From Archaea to Mammals.

Lipids. 2018 01;53(1):5-25

Authors: Řezanka T, Kolouchová I, Gharwalová L, Palyzová A, Sigler K

Abstract
Lipids are among the most important organic compounds found in all living cells, from primitive archaebacteria to flowering plants or mammalian cells. They form part of cell walls and constitute cell storage material. Their biosynthesis and metabolism play key roles in faraway topics such as biofuel production (third-generation biofuels produced by microorganisms, e.g. algae) and human diseases such as adrenoleukodystrophy, Zellweger syndrome, or Refsum disease. Current lipidomic analysis requires fast and accurate processing of samples and especially their characterization. Because the number of possible lipids and, more specifically, molecular species of lipids is of the order of hundreds to thousands, it is necessary to process huge amounts of data in a short time. There are two basic approaches to lipidomic analysis: shotgun and liquid chromatography-mass spectometry. Both methods have their pros and cons. This review deals with lipidomics not according to the type of ionization or the lipid classes analyzed but according to the types of samples (organisms) under study. Thus, it is divided into lipidomic analysis of archaebacteria, bacteria, yeast, fungi, algae, plants, and animals.

PMID: 29446847 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Enzymology of monoterpene functionalization in glandular trichomes.

January 10, 2019 - 6:38am
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Enzymology of monoterpene functionalization in glandular trichomes.

J Exp Bot. 2019 Jan 08;:

Authors: Lange BM, Srividya N

Abstract
The plant kingdom supports an extraordinary chemical diversity, with terpenoids representing a particularly diversified class of secondary (or specialized) metabolites. Volatile and semi-volatile terpenoids in the C10-C20 range are often formed in specialized cell types and secretory structures. In the angiosperm lineage, glandular trichomes play an important role in enabling the biosynthesis and storage (or in some cases secretion) of functionalized terpenoids. The 'decoration' of a terpenoid scaffold with functional groups changes its physical and chemical properties, and can therefore affect the perception of a specific metabolite by other organisms. Because of the ecological implications (e.g. plant-herbivore interactions) and commercial relevance (e.g. volatiles used in the flavor and fragrance industries), terpenoid functionalization has been researched extensively. Recent successes in the cloning and functional evaluation of genes as well as the structural and biochemical characterization of enzyme catalysts have laid the foundation for an improved understanding of how pathways toward functionalized monoterpenes may have evolved. In this review, we will focus on an up-to-date account of functionalization reactions present in glandular trichomes.

PMID: 30624688 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Integration of Omics Approaches toward Understanding Whitefly Transmission of Viruses.

January 1, 2019 - 6:34am
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Integration of Omics Approaches toward Understanding Whitefly Transmission of Viruses.

Adv Virus Res. 2018;102:199-223

Authors: Wintermantel WM

Abstract
Viruses transmitted by whiteflies are predominantly classified as having either persistent circulative or semipersistent transmission, and the majority of studies have addressed transmission of viruses in the genera Begomovirus (family Geminiviridae) and Crinivirus (family Closteroviridae), respectively. Early studies on vector transmission primarily addressed individual aspects of transmission; however, with the breadth of new technology now available, an increasingly greater number of studies involve coordinated research that is beginning to assemble a more complete picture of how whiteflies and viruses have coevolved to facilitate transmission. In particular the integration of gene expression and metabolomic studies into broader research topics is providing knowledge of changes within the whitefly vector in response to the presence of viruses that would have been impossible to identify previously. Examples include comparative studies on the response of Bemisia tabaci to begomovirus and crinivirus infection of common host plants, evolution of whitefly endosymbiont relationships, and opportunities to evaluate responses to specific transmission-related events. Integration of metabolomics, as well as the application of electrical penetration graphing, can lead to an ability to monitor the changes that occur in vector insects associated with specific aspects of virus transmission. Through gaining more complete knowledge of the mechanisms behind whitefly transmission of viruses new control strategies will undoubtedly emerge for control of whiteflies and the viruses they transmit.

PMID: 30266174 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

The SnRK1 Kinase as Central Mediator of Energy Signaling between Different Organelles.

December 27, 2018 - 6:33am
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The SnRK1 Kinase as Central Mediator of Energy Signaling between Different Organelles.

Plant Physiol. 2018 02;176(2):1085-1094

Authors: Wurzinger B, Nukarinen E, Nägele T, Weckwerth W, Teige M

PMID: 29311271 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Volatolomics: A broad area of experimentation.

December 26, 2018 - 6:34pm
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Volatolomics: A broad area of experimentation.

J Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci. 2018 Dec 15;1105:136-147

Authors: Giannoukos S, Agapiou A, Brkić B, Taylor S

Abstract
Chemical analysis (detection and monitoring) of compounds associated with the metabolic activities of an organism is at the cutting edge of science. Volatile metabolomics (volatolomics) are applied in a broad range of applications including: biomedical research (e.g. disease diagnostic tools, personalized healthcare and nutrition, etc.), toxicological analysis (e.g. exposure tool to environmental pollutants, toxic and hazardous chemical environments, industrial accidents, etc.), molecular communications, forensics, safety and security (e.g. search and rescue operations). In the present review paper, an overview of recent advances and applications of volatolomics will be given. The main focus will be on volatile organic compounds (VOCs) originating from biological secretions of various organisms (e.g. microorganisms, insects, plants, humans) and resulting fusion of chemical information. Bench-top and portable or field-deployable technologies-systems will also be presented and discussed.

PMID: 30584978 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Looking at Marine-Derived Bioactive Molecules as Upcoming Anti-Diabetic Agents: A Special Emphasis on PTP1B Inhibitors.

December 19, 2018 - 6:58am
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Looking at Marine-Derived Bioactive Molecules as Upcoming Anti-Diabetic Agents: A Special Emphasis on PTP1B Inhibitors.

Molecules. 2018 Dec 15;23(12):

Authors: Ezzat SM, Bishbishy MHE, Habtemariam S, Salehi B, Sharifi-Rad M, Martins N, Sharifi-Rad J

Abstract
Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a chronic metabolic disease with high morbimortality rates. DM has two types: type 1, which is often associated with a total destruction of pancreatic beta cells, and non-insulin-dependent or type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), more closely associated with obesity and old age. The main causes of T2DM are insulin resistance and/or inadequate insulin secretion. Protein-tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B) negatively regulates insulin signaling pathways and plays an important role in T2DM, as its overexpression may induce insulin resistance. Thus, since PTP1B may be a therapeutic target for both T2DM and obesity, the search for novel and promising natural inhibitors has gained much attention. Hence, several marine organisms, including macro and microalgae, sponges, marine invertebrates, sea urchins, seaweeds, soft corals, lichens, and sea grasses, have been recently evaluated as potential drug sources. This review provides an overview of the role of PTP1B in T2DM insulin signaling and treatment, and highlights the recent findings of several compounds and extracts derived from marine organisms and their relevance as upcoming PTP1B inhibitors. In this systematic literature review, more than 60 marine-derived metabolites exhibiting PTP1B inhibitory activity are listed. Their chemical classes, structural features, relative PTP1B inhibitory potency (assessed by IC50 values), and structure⁻activity relationships (SARs) that could be drawn from the available data are discussed. The upcoming challenge in the field of marine research-metabolomics-is also addressed.

PMID: 30558294 [PubMed - in process]

Pharmacogenomic assessment of herbal drugs in affective disorders.

December 16, 2018 - 7:03am
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Pharmacogenomic assessment of herbal drugs in affective disorders.

Biomed Pharmacother. 2019 Jan;109:1148-1162

Authors: Sahoo S, S B

Abstract
Anxiety and depression, the most prevalent psychiatric disorders are co-morbid in nature affecting several people across the world. There is an increase in demand for complementary and alternative medicines, specifically herbal botanicals due to various side effects exhibited by conventional drugs. Herbal drugs mentioned in traditional medicines, face acceptance issues by the medical community due to lack of scientific data regarding their neurochemical pathways. Hence, there has been an increased interest in the quest to unravel the mechanisms of action of herbal psychotropics. With the advancements in "omic technologies" such as genomics, proteomics and metabolomics, research in the field of herbal psychopharmacology has gained momentum, providing a faster and informative platform for thorough evaluation of herbal drugs and formulations. In this article, we have reviewed several medicinal plants and their formulations that have shown potential anxiolytic and anti-depressant activities and have been screened for their biological mechanisms either at the gene, protein or metabolic level.

PMID: 30551365 [PubMed - in process]

Occurrence and Dynamism of Lactic Acid Bacteria in Distinct Ecological Niches: A Multifaceted Functional Health Perspective.

December 13, 2018 - 6:44am
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Occurrence and Dynamism of Lactic Acid Bacteria in Distinct Ecological Niches: A Multifaceted Functional Health Perspective.

Front Microbiol. 2018;9:2899

Authors: George F, Daniel C, Thomas M, Singer E, Guilbaud A, Tessier FJ, Revol-Junelles AM, Borges F, Foligné B

Abstract
Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are representative members of multiple ecosystems on earth, displaying dynamic interactions within animal and plant kingdoms in respect with other microbes. This highly heterogeneous phylogenetic group has coevolved with plants, invertebrates, and vertebrates, establishing either mutualism, symbiosis, commensalism, or even parasitism-like behavior with their hosts. Depending on their location and environment conditions, LAB can be dominant or sometimes in minority within ecosystems. Whatever their origins and relative abundance in specific anatomic sites, LAB exhibit multifaceted ecological and functional properties. While some resident LAB permanently inhabit distinct animal mucosal cavities, others are provided by food and may transiently occupy the gastrointestinal tract. It is admitted that the overall gut microbiome has a deep impact on health and diseases. Here, we examined the presence and the physiological role of LAB in the healthy human and several animal microbiome. Moreover, we also highlighted some dysbiotic states and related consequences for health, considering both the resident and the so-called "transionts" microorganisms. Whether LAB-related health effects act collectively or follow a strain-specificity dogma is also addressed. Besides the highly suggested contribution of LAB to interplay with immune, metabolic, and even brain-axis regulation, the possible involvement of LAB in xenobiotic detoxification processes and metal equilibrium is also tackled. Recent technological developments such as functional metagenomics, metabolomics, high-content screening and design in vitro and in vivo experimental models now open new horizons for LAB as markers applied for disease diagnosis, susceptibility, and follow-up. Moreover, identification of general and more specific molecular mechanisms based on antioxidant, antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, and detoxifying properties of LAB currently extends their selection and promising use, either as probiotics, in traditional and functional foods, for dedicated treatments and mostly for maintenance of normobiosis and homeostasis.

PMID: 30538693 [PubMed]

Metabolomics-assisted biotechnological interventions for developing plant-based functional foods and nutraceuticals.

December 12, 2018 - 7:09pm
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Metabolomics-assisted biotechnological interventions for developing plant-based functional foods and nutraceuticals.

Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr. 2018 Jul 24;58(11):1791-1807

Authors: Kumar A, Mosa KA, Ji L, Kage U, Dhokane D, Karre S, Madalageri D, Pathania N

Abstract
Today, the dramatic changes in types of food consumed have led to an increased burden of chronic diseases. Therefore, the emphasis of food research is not only to ensure quality food that can supply adequate nutrients to prevent nutrition related diseases, but also to ensure overall physical and mental-health. This has led to the concept of functional foods and nutraceuticals (FFNs), which can be ideally produced and delivered through plants. Metabolomics can help in getting the most relevant functional information, and thus has been considered the greatest -OMICS technology to date. However, metabolomics has not been exploited to the best potential in plant sciences. The technology can be leveraged to identify the health promoting compounds and metabolites that can be used for the development of FFNs. This article reviews (i) plant-based FFNs-related metabolites and their health benefits; (ii) use of different analytic platforms for targeted and non-targeted metabolite profiling along with experimental considerations; (iii) exploitation of metabolomics to develop FFNs in plants using various biotechnological tools; and (iv) potential use of metabolomics in plant breeding. We have also provided some insights into integration of metabolomics with latest genome editing tools for metabolic pathway regulation in plants.

PMID: 28272908 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Multifaceted Interactions Between Endophytes and Plant: Developments and Prospects.

December 1, 2018 - 7:17pm
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Multifaceted Interactions Between Endophytes and Plant: Developments and Prospects.

Front Microbiol. 2018;9:2732

Authors: Khare E, Mishra J, Arora NK

Abstract
Microbial endophytes are present in all known plant species. The ability to enter and thrive in the plant tissues makes endophytes unique, showing multidimensional interactions within the host plant. Several vital activities of the host plant are known to be influenced by the presence of endophytes. They can promote plant growth, elicit defense response against pathogen attack, and can act as remediators of abiotic stresses. To date, most of the research has been done assuming that the interaction of endophytes with the host plant is similar to the plant growth-promoting (PGP) microbes present in the rhizosphere. However, a new appreciation of the difference of the rhizosphere environment from that of internal plant tissues is gaining attention. It would be interesting to explore the impact of endosymbionts on the host's gene expression, metabolism, and other physiological aspects essential in conferring resistance against biotic and abiotic stresses. A more intriguing and inexplicable issue with many endophytes that has to be critically evaluated is their ability to produce host metabolites, which can be harnessed on a large scale for potential use in diverse areas. In this review, we discuss the concept of endophytism, looking into the latest insights related to the multifarious interactions beneficial for the host plant and exploring the importance of these associations in agriculture and the environment and in other vital aspects such as human health.

PMID: 30498482 [PubMed]

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