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Genomics of Metal Stress-Mediated Signalling and Plant Adaptive Responses in Reference to Phytohormones.

December 6, 2017 - 6:25am
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Genomics of Metal Stress-Mediated Signalling and Plant Adaptive Responses in Reference to Phytohormones.

Curr Genomics. 2017 Dec;18(6):512-522

Authors: Shukla A, Srivastava S, Suprasanna P

Abstract
Introduction: As a consequence of a sessile lifestyle, plants often have to face a number of life threatening abiotic and biotic stresses. Plants counteract the stresses through morphological and physiological adaptations, which are imparted through flexible and well-coordinated network of signalling and effector molecules, where phytohormones play important role. Hormone synthesis, signal transduction, perception and cross-talks create a complex network. Omics approaches, which include transcriptomics, genomics, proteomics and metabolomics, have opened new paths to understand such complex networks.
Objective: This review concentrates on the importance of phytohormones and enzymatic expressions under metal stressed conditions.
Conclusion: This review sheds light on gene expressions involved in plant adaptive and defence responses during metal stress. It gives an insight of genomic approaches leading to identification and functional annotation of genes involved in phytohormone signal transduction and perception. Moreover, it also emphasizes on perception, signalling and cross-talks among various phytohormones and other signalling components viz., Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) and Reactive Nitrogen Species (RNS).

PMID: 29204080 [PubMed]

More than Pictures: When MS Imaging Meets Histology.

November 29, 2017 - 6:28am
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More than Pictures: When MS Imaging Meets Histology.

Trends Plant Sci. 2016 Aug;21(8):686-698

Authors: Dong Y, Li B, Aharoni A

Abstract
Attaining high-resolution spatial information is a recurrent challenge in biological research, particularly in the case of small-molecule distribution. Mass spectrometry imaging (MSI) is an innovative molecular histology technique that could provide such information. It allows in situ and label-free measurement of both the abundance and distribution of a variety of molecules at the tissue or single cell level. The application of MSI in plant research has received considerable attention; thus, in this review, we describe the current state of MSI in plants. In particular, we present an overview of MSI approaches, highlight the recent technical and methodological developments, and discuss a range of applications contributing to the field of plant science.

PMID: 27155743 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Environmental and Endogenous Control of Cortical Microtubule Orientation.

November 29, 2017 - 6:28am
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Environmental and Endogenous Control of Cortical Microtubule Orientation.

Trends Cell Biol. 2016 Jun;26(6):409-19

Authors: Chen X, Wu S, Liu Z, Friml J

Abstract
Plant growth requires a tight coordination of cell shape and anisotropic expansion. Owing to their immobility, plant cells determine body architecture through the orientation of cell division and cell expansion. Microtubule cytoskeleton represents a versatile cellular structure essential for coordinating flexible cell morphogenesis. Previous studies have identified a large number of microtubule-associated regulators that control microtubule dynamics; however, the mechanisms by which microtubule reorientation responds to exogenous and environmental stimuli are largely unknown. In this review, we describe the molecular details of microtubule dynamics that are required for cortical microtubule array pattern formation, and recapitulate current knowledge on the mechanisms by which various environmental and endogenous stimuli control cortical microtubule reorientation.

PMID: 26951762 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

The application of ion mobility mass spectrometry to metabolomics.

November 22, 2017 - 9:38am

The application of ion mobility mass spectrometry to metabolomics.

Curr Opin Chem Biol. 2017 Nov 18;42:60-66

Authors: Zhang X, Quinn K, Cruickshank-Quinn C, Reisdorph R, Reisdorph N

Abstract
Mass spectrometry-based metabolomics is being increasingly utilized in various research fields including investigating human diseases, nutrition, industrial applications, and plant/natural products studies. Although new analytical approaches have enhanced the performance of metabolomic analyses, significant challenges associated with throughput, metabolome coverage, and compound identification still exist. Ion mobility mass spectrometry offers great potential for improving throughput and depth of coverage in metabolomics experiments. For example, multi-dimensional, structural resolution offered by ion mobility enables improved identification of metabolites and chemical classes. This mini-review discusses the advantages, recent developments and limitations of using ion mobility mass spectrometry as part of a metabolomics workflow.

PMID: 29161611 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Plant metabolism as studied by NMR spectroscopy.

November 22, 2017 - 9:38am

Plant metabolism as studied by NMR spectroscopy.

Prog Nucl Magn Reson Spectrosc. 2017 Nov;102-103:61-97

Authors: Deborde C, Moing A, Roch L, Jacob D, Rolin D, Giraudeau P

Abstract
The study of plant metabolism impacts a broad range of domains such as plant cultural practices, plant breeding, human or animal nutrition, phytochemistry and green biotechnologies. Plant metabolites are extremely diverse in terms of structure or compound families as well as concentrations. This review attempts to illustrate how NMR spectroscopy, with its broad variety of experimental approaches, has contributed widely to the study of plant primary or specialized metabolism in very diverse ways. The review presents recent developments of one-dimensional and multi-dimensional NMR methods to study various aspects of plant metabolism. Through recent examples, it highlights how NMR has proved to be an invaluable tool for the global characterization of sample composition within metabolomic studies, and shows some examples of use for targeted phytochemistry, with a special focus on compound identification and quantitation. In such cases, NMR approaches are often used to provide snapshots of the plant sample composition. The review also covers dynamic aspects of metabolism, with a description of NMR techniques to measure metabolic fluxes - in most cases after stable isotope labelling. It is mainly intended for NMR specialists who would be interested to learn more about the potential of their favourite technique in plant sciences and about specific details of NMR approaches in this field. Therefore, as a practical guide, a paragraph on the specific precautions that should be taken for sample preparation is also included. In addition, since the quality of NMR metabolic studies is highly dependent on approaches to data processing and data sharing, a specific part is dedicated to these aspects. The review concludes with perspectives on the emerging methods that could change significantly the role of NMR in the field of plant metabolism by boosting its sensitivity. The review is illustrated throughout with examples of studies selected to represent diverse applications of liquid-state or HR-MAS NMR.

PMID: 29157494 [PubMed - in process]

Medicinal Bioprospecting of the Amazon Rainforest: A Modern Eldorado?

October 21, 2017 - 10:25am
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Medicinal Bioprospecting of the Amazon Rainforest: A Modern Eldorado?

Trends Biotechnol. 2016 Oct;34(10):781-90

Authors: Skirycz A, Kierszniowska S, Méret M, Willmitzer L, Tzotzos G

Abstract
Ignorant of the New World, Europeans believed in El Dorado, a hidden city of immense wealth in gold. Many consider the Amazonian forest to be a medicinal treasure chest and potentially the largest drug dispensary in the world. Yet, the quest to obtain drugs from indigenous tropical plants remains elusive. Here, we assess the potential of new technologies to tap into the metabolic diversity of tropical plants. We also consider how regulations affect access to plant resources. We conclude that, although the road to this medicinal El Dorado may be long and arduous, many other smaller but still valuable finds are hidden along the way.

PMID: 27113632 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Green light for lipid fingerprinting.

October 20, 2017 - 7:29am
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Green light for lipid fingerprinting.

Biochim Biophys Acta. 2017 08;1862(8):782-785

Authors: Haslam RP, Feussner I

Abstract
The use of targeted lipidomic approaches for the analysis of plant lipids has steadily increased during recent years. We review recent developments of these methods and suggest the introduction of discovery lipidomics as additional approach through a new workflow, lipid fingerprinting, that integrates the advantages of shotgun lipidomics (quantitative data) with LC-MS-based strategies (higher resolution and/or coverage). This article is part of a Special Issue entitled:BBALIP_Lipidomics Opinion Articles edited by Sepp Kohlwein.

PMID: 28433643 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Plant lipidomics at the crossroads: From technology to biology driven science.

October 20, 2017 - 7:29am
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Plant lipidomics at the crossroads: From technology to biology driven science.

Biochim Biophys Acta. 2017 08;1862(8):786-791

Authors: Shulaev V, Chapman KD

Abstract
The identification and quantification of lipids from plant tissues have become commonplace and many researchers now incorporate lipidomics approaches into their experimental studies. Plant lipidomics research continues to involve technological developments such as those in mass spectrometry imaging, but in large part, lipidomics approaches have matured to the point of being accessible to the novice. Here we review some important considerations for those planning to apply plant lipidomics to their biological questions, and offer suggestions for appropriate tools and practices. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: BBALIP_Lipidomics Opinion Articles edited by Sepp Kohlwein.

PMID: 28238862 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Assimilation of 'omics' strategies to study the cuticle layer and suberin lamellae in plants.

October 19, 2017 - 10:36am
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Assimilation of 'omics' strategies to study the cuticle layer and suberin lamellae in plants.

J Exp Bot. 2017 Oct 12;:

Authors: Cohen H, Szymanski J, Aharoni A, Dominguez E

Abstract
The assembly of the lipophilic cuticle layer and suberin lamellae, approximately 450 million years ago, was a major evolutionary development that enabled plants to colonize terrestrial habitats. The cuticle layer is composed of cutin polyester and embedded cuticular waxes, whereas the suberin lamellae consist of very long chain fatty acid derivatives, glycerol, and phenolics cross-linked with alkyl ferulate-embedded waxes. Due to their substantial biological roles in plant life, the mechanisms underlying the assembly of these structures have been extensively investigated. In the last decade, the introduction of 'omics' approaches, including genomics, transcriptomics, proteomics, and metabolomics, have been key in the identification of novel genetic and chemical elements involved in the formation and function of the cuticle layer and suberin lamellae. This review summarizes contemporary studies that utilized various large-scale, 'omics' strategies in combination with novel technologies to unravel how building blocks and polymers of these lipophilic barriers are made, and moreover linking structure to function along developmental programs and stress responses. We anticipate that the studies discussed here will inspire scientists studying lipophilic barriers to integrate complementary 'omics' approaches in their efforts to tackle as yet unresolved questions and engage the main challenges of the field to date.

PMID: 29040673 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Biosynthesis and regulation of cyanogenic glycoside production in forage plants.

October 13, 2017 - 10:24am
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Biosynthesis and regulation of cyanogenic glycoside production in forage plants.

Appl Microbiol Biotechnol. 2017 Oct 12;:

Authors: Sun Z, Zhang K, Chen C, Wu Y, Tang Y, Georgiev MI, Zhang X, Lin M, Zhou M

Abstract
The natural products cyanogenic glycosides (CNglcs) are present in various forage plant species including Sorghum spp., Trifolium spp., and Lotus spp. The release of toxic hydrogen cyanide (HCN) from endogenous CNglcs, which is known as cyanogenesis, leads to a serious problem for animal consumption while as defensive secondary metabolites, CNglcs play multiple roles in plant development and responses to adverse environment. Therefore, it is highly important to fully uncover the molecular mechanisms of CNglc biosynthesis and regulation to manipulate the contents of CNglcs in forage plants for fine-tuning the balance between defensive responses and food safety. This review summarizes recent studies on the production, function, polymorphism, and regulation of CNglcs in forage plants, aiming to provide updated knowledge on the ways to manipulate CNglcs for further beneficial economic effects.

PMID: 29022076 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

PCR and Omics Based Techniques to Study the Diversity, Ecology and Biology of Anaerobic Fungi: Insights, Challenges and Opportunities.

October 11, 2017 - 7:29am

PCR and Omics Based Techniques to Study the Diversity, Ecology and Biology of Anaerobic Fungi: Insights, Challenges and Opportunities.

Front Microbiol. 2017;8:1657

Authors: Edwards JE, Forster RJ, Callaghan TM, Dollhofer V, Dagar SS, Cheng Y, Chang J, Kittelmann S, Fliegerova K, Puniya AK, Henske JK, Gilmore SP, O'Malley MA, Griffith GW, Smidt H

Abstract
Anaerobic fungi (phylum Neocallimastigomycota) are common inhabitants of the digestive tract of mammalian herbivores, and in the rumen, can account for up to 20% of the microbial biomass. Anaerobic fungi play a primary role in the degradation of lignocellulosic plant material. They also have a syntrophic interaction with methanogenic archaea, which increases their fiber degradation activity. To date, nine anaerobic fungal genera have been described, with further novel taxonomic groupings known to exist based on culture-independent molecular surveys. However, the true extent of their diversity may be even more extensively underestimated as anaerobic fungi continue being discovered in yet unexplored gut and non-gut environments. Additionally many studies are now known to have used primers that provide incomplete coverage of the Neocallimastigomycota. For ecological studies the internal transcribed spacer 1 region (ITS1) has been the taxonomic marker of choice, but due to various limitations the large subunit rRNA (LSU) is now being increasingly used. How the continued expansion of our knowledge regarding anaerobic fungal diversity will impact on our understanding of their biology and ecological role remains unclear; particularly as it is becoming apparent that anaerobic fungi display niche differentiation. As a consequence, there is a need to move beyond the broad generalization of anaerobic fungi as fiber-degraders, and explore the fundamental differences that underpin their ability to exist in distinct ecological niches. Application of genomics, transcriptomics, proteomics and metabolomics to their study in pure/mixed cultures and environmental samples will be invaluable in this process. To date the genomes and transcriptomes of several characterized anaerobic fungal isolates have been successfully generated. In contrast, the application of proteomics and metabolomics to anaerobic fungal analysis is still in its infancy. A central problem for all analyses, however, is the limited functional annotation of anaerobic fungal sequence data. There is therefore an urgent need to expand information held within publicly available reference databases. Once this challenge is overcome, along with improved sample collection and extraction, the application of these techniques will be key in furthering our understanding of the ecological role and impact of anaerobic fungi in the wide range of environments they inhabit.

PMID: 28993761 [PubMed]

[Advances on molecular mechanisms of Rehmannia glutinosa consecutive monoculture problem formation in multi-omics era].

September 28, 2017 - 10:26am
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[Advances on molecular mechanisms of Rehmannia glutinosa consecutive monoculture problem formation in multi-omics era].

Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi. 2017 Feb;42(3):413-419

Authors: Li MJ, Feng FJ, Zhang B, Gu L, Wang FQ, Yang YH, Tian YH, Chen XJ, Zhang ZY

Abstract
Although consecutive monoculture problems have been studied for many years, no effective treatments are currently available. The complexity of systems triggered the formation of consecutive monoculture problems was one major cause. This paper elaborated the physiological and ecological mechanisms of consecutive monoculture problem formation based on the interaction relationship among multiple factors presented in the rhizosphere soil of consecutive monoculture plants. At same time, in this paper the multiple interactions among cultivated medicinal plants, autotoxic allelochemicals and rhizosphere microbial were proposed to be most important causes that derived the formation of consecutive monoculture problem. The paper also highlighted the advantage of 'omics' technologies integrating plant functional genomics and metabolomics as well as microbial macro-omics in understanding the multiple factor interaction under a particular ecological environment. Additionally, taking R. glutinosa as an example, the paper reviewed the molecular mechanism for the formation of R. glutinosa consecutive monoculture problem from the perspective of the accumulation of allelopathic autotoxins, the rhizosphere microecology catastrophe and theresponding of consecutive monoculture plants. Simultaneously, the roles of mutilple 'omics' technologies in comprehending these formation mechanism were described in detail. This paper provides finally a new insight to solve systematically the mechanism of consecutive monoculture problem formation on molecular level.

PMID: 28952242 [PubMed - in process]

Omics Approaches for Understanding Grapevine Berry Development: Regulatory Networks Associated with Endogenous Processes and Environmental Responses.

September 23, 2017 - 7:25am
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Omics Approaches for Understanding Grapevine Berry Development: Regulatory Networks Associated with Endogenous Processes and Environmental Responses.

Front Plant Sci. 2017;8:1486

Authors: Serrano A, Espinoza C, Armijo G, Inostroza-Blancheteau C, Poblete E, Meyer-Regueiro C, Arce A, Parada F, Santibáñez C, Arce-Johnson P

Abstract
Grapevine fruit development is a dynamic process that can be divided into three stages: formation (I), lag (II), and ripening (III), in which physiological and biochemical changes occur, leading to cell differentiation and accumulation of different solutes. These stages can be positively or negatively affected by multiple environmental factors. During the last decade, efforts have been made to understand berry development from a global perspective. Special attention has been paid to transcriptional and metabolic networks associated with the control of grape berry development, and how external factors affect the ripening process. In this review, we focus on the integration of global approaches, including proteomics, metabolomics, and especially transcriptomics, to understand grape berry development. Several aspects will be considered, including seed development and the production of seedless fruits; veraison, at which anthocyanin accumulation begins in the berry skin of colored varieties; and hormonal regulation of berry development and signaling throughout ripening, focusing on the transcriptional regulation of hormone receptors, protein kinases, and genes related to secondary messenger sensing. Finally, berry responses to different environmental factors, including abiotic (temperature, water-related stress and UV-B radiation) and biotic (fungi and viruses) stresses, and how they can significantly modify both, development and composition of vine fruit, will be discussed. Until now, advances have been made due to the application of Omics tools at different molecular levels. However, the potential of these technologies should not be limited to the study of single-level questions; instead, data obtained by these platforms should be integrated to unravel the molecular aspects of grapevine development. Therefore, the current challenge is the generation of new tools that integrate large-scale data to assess new questions in this field, and to support agronomical practices.

PMID: 28936215 [PubMed]

Benefits and Limitations of DNA Barcoding and Metabarcoding in Herbal Product Authentication.

September 15, 2017 - 10:24am
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Benefits and Limitations of DNA Barcoding and Metabarcoding in Herbal Product Authentication.

Phytochem Anal. 2017 Sep 14;:

Authors: Raclariu AC, Heinrich M, Ichim MC, de Boer H

Abstract
INTRODUCTION: Herbal medicines play an important role globally in the health care sector and in industrialised countries they are often considered as an alternative to mono-substance medicines. Current quality and authentication assessment methods rely mainly on morphology and analytical phytochemistry-based methods detailed in pharmacopoeias. Herbal products however are often highly processed with numerous ingredients, and even if these analytical methods are accurate for quality control of specific lead or marker compounds, they are of limited suitability for the authentication of biological ingredients.
OBJECTIVE: To review the benefits and limitations of DNA barcoding and metabarcoding in complementing current herbal product authentication.
METHOD: Recent literature relating to DNA based authentication of medicinal plants, herbal medicines and products are summarised to provide a basic understanding of how DNA barcoding and metabarcoding can be applied to this field.
RESULTS: Different methods of quality control and authentication have varying resolution and usefulness along the value chain of these products. DNA barcoding can be used for authenticating products based on single herbal ingredients and DNA metabarcoding for assessment of species diversity in processed products, and both methods should be used in combination with appropriate hyphenated chemical methods for quality control.
CONCLUSIONS: DNA barcoding and metabarcoding have potential in the context of quality control of both well and poorly regulated supply systems. Standardisation of protocols for DNA barcoding and DNA sequence-based identification are necessary before DNA-based biological methods can be implemented as routine analytical approaches and approved by the competent authorities for use in regulated procedures. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

PMID: 28906059 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Dual RNA-Sequencing to Elucidate the Plant-Pathogen Duel.

September 9, 2017 - 7:36am

Dual RNA-Sequencing to Elucidate the Plant-Pathogen Duel.

Curr Issues Mol Biol. 2017 Sep 08;27:127-142

Authors: Naidoo S, Visser EA, Zwart L, Toit YD, Bhadauria V, Shuey LS

Abstract
RNA-sequencing technology has been widely adopted to investigate host responses during infection with pathogens. Dual RNA-sequencing (RNA-seq) allows the simultaneous capture of pathogen specific transcripts during infection, providing a more complete view of the interaction. In this review, we focus on the design of dual RNA-seq experiments and the application of downstream data analysis to gain biological insight into both sides of the interaction. Recent literature in this area demonstrates the power of the dual RNA-seq approach and shows that it is not limited to model systems where genomic resources are available. A reduction in sequencing cost and single cell transcriptomics coupled with protein and metabolite level dual approaches are set to enhance our understanding of plant-pathogen interactions. Sequencing costs continue to decrease and single cell transcriptomics is becoming more feasible. In combination with proteomics and metabolomics studies, these technological advances are likely to contribute to our understanding of the temporal and spatial aspects of dynamic plant-pathogen interactions.

PMID: 28885179 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Liquid chromatography-high resolution mass spectrometry for the analysis of phytochemicals in vegetal-derived food and beverages.

September 7, 2017 - 10:25am
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Liquid chromatography-high resolution mass spectrometry for the analysis of phytochemicals in vegetal-derived food and beverages.

Food Res Int. 2017 Oct;100(Pt 1):28-52

Authors: La Barbera G, Capriotti AL, Cavaliere C, Montone CM, Piovesana S, Samperi R, Zenezini Chiozzi R, Laganà A

Abstract
The recent years witnessed a change in the perception of nutrition. Diet does not only provide nutrients to meet the metabolic requirements of the body, but it also constitutes an active way for the consumption of compounds beneficial for human health. Fruit and vegetables are an excellent source of such compounds, thus the growing interest in characterizing phytochemical sources, structures and activities. Given the interest for phytochemicals in food, the development of advanced and suitable analytical techniques for their identification is fundamental for the advancement of food research. In this review, the state of the art of phytochemical research in food plants is described, starting from sample preparation, throughout extract clean-up and compound separation techniques, to the final analysis, considering both qualitative and quantitative investigations. In this regard, from an analytical point of view, fruit and vegetable extracts are complex matrices, which greatly benefit from the use of modern hyphenated techniques, in particular from the combination of high performance liquid chromatography separation and high resolution mass spectrometry, powerful tools which are being increasingly used in the recent years. Therefore, selected applications to real samples are presented and discussed, in particular for the analysis of phenols, polyphenols and phenolic acids. Finally, some hot points are discussed, such as waste characterization for high value-compounds recovery and the untargeted metabolomics approach.

PMID: 28873689 [PubMed - in process]

Somatic Embryogenesis in Coffee: The Evolution of Biotechnology and the Integration of Omics Technologies Offer Great Opportunities.

September 6, 2017 - 7:27am
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Somatic Embryogenesis in Coffee: The Evolution of Biotechnology and the Integration of Omics Technologies Offer Great Opportunities.

Front Plant Sci. 2017;8:1460

Authors: Campos NA, Panis B, Carpentier SC

Abstract
One of the most important crops cultivated around the world is coffee. There are two main cultivated species, Coffea arabica and C. canephora. Both species are difficult to improve through conventional breeding, taking at least 20 years to produce a new cultivar. Biotechnological tools such as genetic transformation, micropropagation and somatic embryogenesis (SE) have been extensively studied in order to provide practical results for coffee improvement. While genetic transformation got many attention in the past and is booming with the CRISPR technology, micropropagation and SE are still the major bottle neck and urgently need more attention. The methodologies to induce SE and the further development of the embryos are genotype-dependent, what leads to an almost empirical development of specific protocols for each cultivar or clone. This is a serious limitation and excludes a general comprehensive understanding of the process as a whole. The aim of this review is to provide an overview of which achievements and molecular insights have been gained in (coffee) somatic embryogenesis and encourage researchers to invest further in the in vitro technology and combine it with the latest omics techniques (genomics, transcriptomics, proteomics, metabolomics, and phenomics). We conclude that the evolution of biotechnology and the integration of omics technologies offer great opportunities to (i) optimize the production process of SE and the subsequent conversion into rooted plantlets and (ii) to screen for possible somaclonal variation. However, currently the usage of the latest biotechnology did not pass the stage beyond proof of potential and needs to further improve.

PMID: 28871271 [PubMed]

Resveratrol in the foodomics era: 1:25,000.

September 5, 2017 - 10:22am
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Resveratrol in the foodomics era: 1:25,000.

Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2017 Sep 03;:

Authors: Khakimov B, Engelsen SB

Abstract
Resveratrol is probably the most investigated plant secondary metabolite ever. An epidemiological study known as the French paradox showed a correlation between red wine intake and low mortality due to coronary heart diseases, and the red wine substance resveratrol was claimed to play a key role. Since then, several hundred resveratrol studies have been conducted to demonstrate its antioxidant and other beneficial properties. In the foodomics era, considering a complex foodome including over 25,000 substances that make up the human diet, it appears to be outdated to pursue the hunt for biological activities one function/compound at a time. First, nature is multivariate, and the effect of any one molecule will have to be modulated by its carrying matrix, its bioavailability, and synergies with other molecules. Second, a large number of targeted studies have the tendency to become biased, as they tend to retain only the data that the researchers think are relevant and thus increase the chances of spurious correlations. In this concise review, we retrace the research toward a more inductive, holistic, and multivariate path.

PMID: 28868614 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

An overview of cardenolides in Digitalis - more than a cardiotonic compound.

August 30, 2017 - 10:24am
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An overview of cardenolides in Digitalis - more than a cardiotonic compound.

Curr Pharm Des. 2017 Aug 25;:

Authors: Gurel E, Karvar S, Yucesan B, Eker I, Sameeullah M

Abstract
The genus Digitalis L. containing species, commonly known as the "foxglove", is the main source of cardenolides, which have various pharmacological properties effective against certain pathological conditions including myocardial infarction, arterial hypertension, cardiac dysfunction, angina, and hypertrophy. Togehter with a prime effect of controlling the heart rhythm, many workers demonstrated that lanatoside C and some other cardiac glycosides are effective in several cancer treatments such as prostate and breast cancers. Due to digoxigenin derivatives of cardenolides, which are mainly used for medicinal purposes, such as digoxigenin, D. lanata as a main source is of great interest for commercial scale production of cardenolides in Europe. Phytochemical studies on cardenolides, naturally occurring plant secondary metabolites, have mainly focused on the species of the genus Digitalis L., as the members of this family have a high level and diverse content of cardenolides. During the last few decades, plant tissue culture techniques have been optimised for many plant species including Digitalis, however, the production capacity of cardenolides somehow failed to reach a commercially desired extent. In this review paper, the genus Digitalis is evaluated in terms of its main botanical and physiological features, traditional uses, molecular genetics and metabolomics, cellular mechanism of action, medicinal uses, clinical pharmacology, drug interactions, therapy in the management of cardiovascular disorders, potential utility of therapy in extracardiac conditions, and toxicity.

PMID: 28847302 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Extracellular Microbial Metabolomics: The State of the Art.

August 23, 2017 - 7:26am
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Extracellular Microbial Metabolomics: The State of the Art.

Metabolites. 2017 Aug 22;7(3):

Authors: Pinu FR, Villas-Boas SG

Abstract
Microorganisms produce and secrete many primary and secondary metabolites to the surrounding environment during their growth. Therefore, extracellular metabolites provide important information about the changes in microbial metabolism due to different environmental cues. The determination of these metabolites is also comparatively easier than the extraction and analysis of intracellular metabolites as there is no need for cell rupture. Many analytical methods are already available and have been used for the analysis of extracellular metabolites from microorganisms over the last two decades. Here, we review the applications and benefits of extracellular metabolite analysis. We also discuss different sample preparation protocols available in the literature for both types (e.g., metabolites in solution and in gas) of extracellular microbial metabolites. Lastly, we evaluate the authenticity of using extracellular metabolomics data in the metabolic modelling of different industrially important microorganisms.

PMID: 28829385 [PubMed]

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