Plant Metabolomics Reviews

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Traceability of fruits and vegetables.

April 4, 2020 - 8:17am
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Traceability of fruits and vegetables.

Phytochemistry. 2020 May;173:112291

Authors: Francois G, Fabrice V, Didier M

Abstract
Food safety and traceability are nowadays a constant concern for consumers, and indeed for all actors in the food chain, including those involved in the fruit and vegetable sector. For the EU, the principles and legal requirements of traceability are set out in Regulation 178/2002. Currently however the regulation does not describe any analytical traceability tools. Furthermore, traceability systems for fruits and vegetables face increasing competition due to market globalization. The current challenge for actors in this sector is therefore to be sufficiently competitive in terms of price, traceability, quality and safety to avoid scandal and fraud. For all these reasons, new, flexible, cheap and efficient traceability tools, as isotopic analysis, DNA fingerprinting and metabolomic profiling coupled with chemometrics are needed.

PMID: 32106013 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Phosphate in Virulence of Candida albicans and Candida glabrata.

April 1, 2020 - 8:20am
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Phosphate in Virulence of Candida albicans and Candida glabrata.

J Fungi (Basel). 2020 Mar 26;6(2):

Authors: Köhler JR, Acosta-Zaldívar M, Qi W

Abstract
Candida species are the most commonly isolated invasive human fungal pathogens. A role for phosphate acquisition in their growth, resistance against host immune cells, and tolerance of important antifungal medications is becoming apparent. Phosphorus is an essential element in vital components of the cell, including chromosomes and ribosomes. Producing the energy currency of the cell, ATP, requires abundant inorganic phosphate. A comparison of the network of regulators and effectors that controls phosphate acquisition and intracellular distribution, the PHO regulon, between the model yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, a plant saprobe, its evolutionarily close relative C. glabrata, and the more distantly related C. albicans, highlights the need to coordinate phosphate homeostasis with adenylate biosynthesis for ATP production. It also suggests that fungi that cope with phosphate starvation as they invade host tissues, may link phosphate acquisition to stress responses as an efficient mechanism of anticipatory regulation. Recent work indicates that connections among the PHO regulon, Target of Rapamycin Complex 1 signaling, oxidative stress management, and cell wall construction are based both in direct signaling links, and in the provision of phosphate for sufficient metabolic intermediates that are substrates in these processes. Fundamental differences in fungal and human phosphate homeostasis may offer novel drug targets.

PMID: 32224872 [PubMed]

Heterosis Breeding in Eggplant (Solanum melongena L.): Gains and Provocations.

March 28, 2020 - 7:18am
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Heterosis Breeding in Eggplant (Solanum melongena L.): Gains and Provocations.

Plants (Basel). 2020 Mar 24;9(3):

Authors: Kumar A, Sharma V, Jain BT, Kaushik P

Abstract
Heterosis (or hybrid vigor) results in a hybrid's phenotypic superiority over its founder parents for quantitative and qualitative traits. Hybrid vigor is defined by mechanisms such as dominant complementation, over-dominance, and epistasis. Eggplant (Solanum melongena L.) is an essential vegetable crop and a good source of dietary minerals, vitamins, and anthocyanins, with a high oxygen radical absorbance capacity and low caloric value. Given the economic and nutritional significance of eggplants, breeding efforts focus on developing high-yielding varieties-mostly F1 hybrids-with important traits. Studies indicate the successful exploitation of heterosis in the eggplant for a considerable improvement with respect to quantitative traits. In this direction, estimating heterosis for yield-related traits could well be useful for examining the most beneficial hybrid mix with the exploitation of top-quality hybrid. This review examines the current perception of the breeding and molecular aspects of heterosis in eggplants and cites several studies describing the mechanisms. Rendering and combining recent genomics, epigenetic, proteomic, and metabolomics studies present new prospects towards the understanding of the regulatory events of heterosis involved in the evolution and the domestication of the eggplant ideotype.

PMID: 32213925 [PubMed]

NMR-Based Plant Metabolomics in Nutraceutical Research: An Overview.

March 27, 2020 - 4:19pm
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NMR-Based Plant Metabolomics in Nutraceutical Research: An Overview.

Molecules. 2020 Mar 23;25(6):

Authors: Valentino G, Graziani V, D'Abrosca B, Pacifico S, Fiorentino A, Scognamiglio M

Abstract
Few topics are able to channel the interest of researchers, the public, and industries, like nutraceuticals. The ever-increasing demand of new compounds or new sources of known active compounds, along with the need of a better knowledge about their effectiveness, mode of action, safety, etc., led to a significant effort towards the development of analytical approaches able to answer the many questions related to this topic. Therefore, the application of cutting edges approaches to this area has been observed. Among these approaches, metabolomics is a key player. Herewith, the applications of NMR-based metabolomics to nutraceutical research are discussed: after a brief overview of the analytical workflow, the use of NMR-based metabolomics to the search for new compounds or new sources of known nutraceuticals are reviewed. Then, possible applications for quality control and nutraceutical optimization are suggested. Finally, the use of NMR-based metabolomics to study the impact of nutraceuticals on human metabolism is discussed.

PMID: 32210071 [PubMed - in process]

Obesity and NRF2-mediated cytoprotection: Where is the missing link?

March 25, 2020 - 6:18am
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Obesity and NRF2-mediated cytoprotection: Where is the missing link?

Pharmacol Res. 2020 Mar 20;:104760

Authors: Vasileva LV, Savova MS, Amirova KM, Dinkova-Kostova AT, Georgiev MI

Abstract
The expanding dimensions of the global health crisis of overweight population has defined the term "globesity". Among the most common pathological conditions connected with excessive adiposity are hyperglycemia, insulin resistance, dyslipidemia and hypertension which result in chronic non-communicable diseases (NCD) such as metabolic syndrome (MetS), type 2 diabetes (T2D), and nonalchoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). The contribution of inflammatory-immune reactions in obesity and its related co-morbidities is unequivocal. Increased levels of free fatty acids (FFA), reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive nitrogen species (RNS) overloads the homeostatic system resulting in pro-inflammatory adipokines secretion, immune-activation and chronic inflammation in obesity. The cellular mechanisms of defense against oxidative stress are orchestrated by the transcription factor nuclear factor erythroid 2 p45-related factor 2 (NRF2). Excessive oxidative stress in the cell activates NRF2 which upregulates genes encoding major cytoprotective enzymes such as NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1), heme oxygenase 1 (HO1), and glutathione S-transferases (GST). The present review aims to clarify the interconnections between chronic inflammation, oxidative overload and NRF2-mediated cytoprotection as potential therapeutic approach in obesity.

PMID: 32205234 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

The style and substance of plant flavonoid decoration; towards defining both structure and function.

March 24, 2020 - 7:19am
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The style and substance of plant flavonoid decoration; towards defining both structure and function.

Phytochemistry. 2020 Mar 20;174:112347

Authors: Alseekh S, Perez de Souza L, Benina M, Fernie AR

Abstract
Over 8000 different flavonoids have been described and a considerable number of new flavonoid structures are being elucidated every year. The advent of metabolomics alongside the development of phytochemical genetics - wherein the genetic basis underlying the regulation of the levels of plant metabolites is determined - has provided a massive boost to such efforts. That said our understanding of the individual function(s) of the vast majority of the metabolites that constitute this important class of phytochemicals remains unknown. Here we review what is known concerning the major decorative modifications of flavonoids in plants, namely hydroxylation, glycosylation, methylation and acylation. Our major focus is with regard to the in planta function of these modified compounds, however, we also highlight the demonstrated bioactive roles which they possess. We additionally performed a comprehensive survey of the flavonoids listed in the KNApSAcK database in order to assess the frequency of occurrence of each type of flavonoid modification. We conclude that whilst considerable research has been carried out regarding the biological roles of flavonoids most studies to date have merely provided information on the compound class or sub-classes thereof as a whole with too little currently known on the specific role of individual metabolites. We, therefore, finally suggest a framework based on currently available tools by which the relative importance of the individual compounds can be assessed under various biological conditions in order to fill this knowledge-gap.

PMID: 32203741 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Dynamics of Plant Metabolism during Cold Acclimation.

March 24, 2020 - 7:19am
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Dynamics of Plant Metabolism during Cold Acclimation.

Int J Mol Sci. 2019 Oct 30;20(21):

Authors: Fürtauer L, Weiszmann J, Weckwerth W, Nägele T

Abstract
Plants have evolved strategies to tightly regulate metabolism during acclimation to a changing environment. Low temperature significantly constrains distribution, growth and yield of many temperate plant species. Exposing plants to low but non-freezing temperature induces a multigenic processes termed cold acclimation, which eventually results in an increased freezing tolerance. Cold acclimation comprises reprogramming of the transcriptome, proteome and metabolome and affects communication and signaling between subcellular organelles. Carbohydrates play a central role in this metabolic reprogramming. This review summarizes current knowledge about the role of carbohydrate metabolism in plant cold acclimation with a focus on subcellular metabolic reprogramming, its thermodynamic constraints under low temperature and mathematical modelling of metabolism.

PMID: 31671650 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Recent advances in untargeted and targeted approaches applied in herbal-extracts and essential-oils fingerprinting - A review.

March 24, 2020 - 7:19am
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Recent advances in untargeted and targeted approaches applied in herbal-extracts and essential-oils fingerprinting - A review.

J Pharm Biomed Anal. 2020 Jan 05;177:112849

Authors: Kharbach M, Marmouzi I, El Jemli M, Bouklouze A, Vander Heyden Y

Abstract
Herbal extracts and essential oils have been used over the centuries for their dietary, cosmetic and therapeutic properties. Quality control is needed to guarantee the safety and quality of these consumables. In this regard, fingerprinting techniques are important for inspection of the authenticity and for quality control. Analytical fingerprinting techniques provide signals related to the composition of a matrix (oil, plant extract, food…). The resulting fingerprint (spectrum or chromatogram) obtained for an untargeted or targeted approach is coupled to chemometric data processing, which may allow, for instance, the desired identification or discrimination of the sample considered. In this context, recent advances in untargeted/targeted fingerprinting approaches (especially chromatographic and spectroscopic) were described and their application in the taxonomic identification, classification and authentication of plants (medicinal) and essential oils discussed. An overview of the applications of untargeted/targeted fingerprinting techniques on herbal-extracts and essential-oils analysis, using different chemometric tools, has been included.

PMID: 31499429 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Green (cell) factories for advanced production of plant secondary metabolites.

March 18, 2020 - 5:20am

Green (cell) factories for advanced production of plant secondary metabolites.

Crit Rev Biotechnol. 2020 Mar 16;:1-16

Authors: Marchev AS, Yordanova ZP, Georgiev MI

Abstract
For centuries plants have been intensively utilized as reliable sources of food, flavoring, agrochemical and pharmaceutical ingredients. However, plant natural habitats are being rapidly lost due to climate change and agriculture. Plant biotechnology offers a sustainable method for the bioproduction of plant secondary metabolites using plant in vitro systems. The unique structural features of plant-derived secondary metabolites, such as their safety profile, multi-target spectrum and "metabolite likeness," have led to the establishment of many plant-derived drugs, comprising approximately a quarter of all drugs approved by the Food and Drug Administration and/or European Medicinal Agency. However, there are still many challenges to overcome to enhance the production of these metabolites from plant in vitro systems and establish a sustainable large-scale biotechnological process. These challenges are due to the peculiarities of plant cell metabolism, the complexity of plant secondary metabolite pathways, and the correct selection of bioreactor systems and bioprocess optimization. In this review, we present an integrated overview of the possible avenues for enhancing the biosynthesis of high-value marketable molecules produced by plant in vitro systems. These include metabolic engineering and CRISPR/Cas9 technology for the regulation of plant metabolism through overexpression/repression of single or multiple structural genes or transcriptional factors. The use of NMR-based metabolomics for monitoring metabolite concentrations and additionally as a tool to study the dynamics of plant cell metabolism and nutritional management is discussed here. Different types of bioreactor systems, their modification and optimal process parameters for the lab- or industrial-scale production of plant secondary metabolites are specified.

PMID: 32178548 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Exocytosis and endocytosis: Coordinating and fine-tuning the polar tip growth domain in pollen tubes.

March 17, 2020 - 6:18am
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Exocytosis and endocytosis: Coordinating and fine-tuning the polar tip growth domain in pollen tubes.

J Exp Bot. 2020 Mar 16;:

Authors: Guo J, Yang Z

Abstract
Pollen tubes rapidly elongate, penetrate and navigate through multiple female tissues to reach ovules for sperm delivery by utilizing a specialized form of polar growth known as tip growth. This process requires a battery of cellular activities differentially occurring at the apical growing region of the plasma membrane (PM), such as the differential cellular signaling involving calcium (Ca2+), phospholipids, and ROP-type Rho GTPases, fluctuation of ions and pH, exocytosis and endocytosis, and cell wall construction and remodeling. There is an emerging understanding of how at least some of these activities are coordinated and/or interconnected. The apical active ROP modulates exocytosis to the cell apex for PM and cell wall expansion differentially occurring at the tip. The differentiation of the cell wall involves at least the preferential distribution of deformable pectin polymers to the apex and of non-deformable pectin polymers to the shank of pollen tubes, facilitating the apical cell expansion driven by high internal turgor pressure. Recent studies have generated inroads into how the ROP GTPase-based intracellular signaling spatiotemporally is coordinated with the external wall mechanics to maintain the tubular cell shape and how the apical cell wall mechanics is regulated to allow rapid tip growth while maintaining the cell wall integrity under the turgor pressure. Evidence suggests that exocytosis and endocytosis play crucial but distinct roles in this spatiotemporal coordination. In this review, we summarize some recent advances in the regulation and coordination of the differential pectin distribution and the apical domain of active ROP by exocytosis and endocytosis in pollen tubes.

PMID: 32173729 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

PANOMICS meets Germplasm.

March 13, 2020 - 8:19am
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PANOMICS meets Germplasm.

Plant Biotechnol J. 2020 Mar 12;:

Authors: Weckwerth W, Ghatak A, Bellaire A, Chaturvedi P, Varshney RK

Abstract
Genotyping-by sequencing has enabled approaches for genomic selection to improve yield, stress resistance and nutritional value. More and more resource studies are emerging providing 1000 and more genotypes and millions of SNP´s of one species and covering a hitherto inaccessible intraspecific genetic variation. The larger the databases are growing the better statistical approaches for genomic selection will be. However, there are clear limitations on the statistical but also on the biological part. Intraspecific genetic variation is able to explain a high proportion of the phenotypes but a large part of phenotypic plasticity also stems from environmentally-driven post-transcriptional, translational, post-translational, epigenetic and metabolic regulation. Moreover, the same gene regulation can have different phenotypic outputs in different environments. Consequently, to explain and understand environment-dependent phenotypic plasticity based on the available genotype variation we have to integrate the analysis of further molecular levels reflecting the complete information flow from the gene to metabolism to phenotype. Interestingly, metabolomics platforms are already more cost-effective than NGS platforms and are decisive for prediction of nutritional value or stress resistance. Here we propose three fundamental pillars for future breeding strategies in the framework of Green Systems Biology: (i) Combining genome selection with environment-dependent PANOMICS analysis and deep learning to improve prediction accuracy for marker-dependent trait performance. (ii) PANOMICS resolution at sub-tissue, cellular and subcellular level provides information about fundamental functions of selected markers. (iii) Combining PANOMICS with genome editing and speed breeding tools to accelerate and enhance large scale functional validation of trait-specific precision breeding.

PMID: 32163658 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Fertilization in flowering plants: an odyssey of sperm cell delivery.

March 4, 2020 - 6:19am
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Fertilization in flowering plants: an odyssey of sperm cell delivery.

Plant Mol Biol. 2020 Mar 02;:

Authors: Adhikari PB, Liu X, Wu X, Zhu S, Kasahara RD

Abstract
KEY MESSAGE: In light of the available discoveries in the field, this review manuscript discusses on plant reproduction mechanism and molecular players involved in the process. Sperm cells in angiosperms are immotile and are physically distant to the female gametophytes (FG). To secure the production of the next generation, plants have devised a clever approach by which the two sperm cells in each pollen are safely delivered to the female gametophyte where two fertilization events occur (by each sperm cell fertilizing an egg cell and central cell) to give rise to embryo and endosperm. Each of the successfully fertilized ovules later develops into a seed. Sets of macromolecules play roles in pollen tube (PT) guidance, from the stigma, through the transmitting tract and funiculus to the micropylar end of the ovule. Other sets of genetic players are involved in PT reception and in its rupture after it enters the ovule, and yet other sets of genes function in gametic fusion. Angiosperms have come long way from primitive reproductive structure development to today's sophisticated, diverse, and in most cases flamboyant organ. In this review, we will be discussing on the intricate yet complex molecular mechanism of double fertilization and how it might have been shaped by the evolutionary forces focusing particularly on the model plant Arabidopsis.

PMID: 32124177 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Omics in traditional vegetable fermented foods and beverages.

February 28, 2020 - 5:17am
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Omics in traditional vegetable fermented foods and beverages.

Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr. 2020;60(5):791-809

Authors: Rizo J, Guillén D, Farrés A, Díaz-Ruiz G, Sánchez S, Wacher C, Rodríguez-Sanoja R

Abstract
For a long time, food microbiota has been studied using traditional microbiological techniques. With the arrival of molecular or culture-independent techniques, a strong understanding of microbiota dynamics has been achieved. However, analyzing the functional role of microbial communities is not an easy task. The application of omics sciences to the study of fermented foods would provide the metabolic and functional understanding of the microbial communities and their impact on the fermented product, including the molecules that define its aroma and flavor, as well as its nutritional properties. Until now, most omics studies have focused on commercial fermented products, such as cheese, wine, bread and beer, but traditional fermented foods have been neglected. Therefore, the information that allows to relate the present microbiota in the food and its properties remains limited. In this review, reports on the applications of omics in the study of traditional fermented foods and beverages are reviewed to propose new ways to analyze the fermentation phenomena.

PMID: 30582346 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Metabolomic applications for understanding complex tripartite plant-microbes interactions: Strategies and perspectives.

February 27, 2020 - 7:17am
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Metabolomic applications for understanding complex tripartite plant-microbes interactions: Strategies and perspectives.

Biotechnol Rep (Amst). 2020 Mar;25:e00425

Authors: Adeniji AA, Babalola OO, Loots DT

Abstract
Phytopathogens from the Alternaria sp., Fusarium sp., Penicillium sp., and Pseudomonas sp. and their toxigenic metabolites - alternariol, fumonisin, citrinin, and coronatine respectively, negatively impact crop yields and sales by eliciting plant diseases and/or causing human and veterinary toxicoses upon the consumption of contaminated food. These phytopathogens and their associated toxins, however, are present and most likely in undetectable concentrations pre-harvest and post-harvest of many major staple crops. Metabolomic approaches have been used extensively for better characterizing and diagnosing human disease, plant disease and, their etiological agents. Their use in agro-industrial research focusing specifically on tripartite (plant - toxicogenic microbe - beneficial microbe) interactions is, however, limited. Since new approaches for eradicating food-borne pathogens, increasing crop productivity and improving agro-international trade are being sought worldwide, the consequent integration of metabolomic approaches and perspectives in crop protection strategies for better understanding plant - toxicogenic microbe - beneficial microbe interaction in tandem is discussed.

PMID: 32099821 [PubMed]

Genomics-assisted breeding for ear rot resistances and reduced mycotoxin contamination in maize: methods, advances and prospects.

February 27, 2020 - 7:17am
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Genomics-assisted breeding for ear rot resistances and reduced mycotoxin contamination in maize: methods, advances and prospects.

Theor Appl Genet. 2019 Oct;132(10):2721-2739

Authors: Gaikpa DS, Miedaner T

Abstract
KEY MESSAGE: Genetic mapping, genomic profiling and bioinformatic approaches were used to identify putative resistance genes for ear rots and low mycotoxin contamination in maize. Genomic selection seems to have good perspectives. Maize is globally an indispensable crop for humans and livestock. About 30% of yield is lost by fungal diseases with Gibberella, Fusarium and Aspergillus ear rots (ERs) having a high economic impact in most maize-growing regions of the world. They reduce not only yield, but also contaminate grains with mycotoxins like deoxynivalenol, zearalenone, fumonisins and aflatoxins, respectively. These mycotoxins pose serious health problems to humans and animals. A number of studies have been conducted to dissect the genetic architecture of resistance to these three major ear rots over the past decade. The review concentrates on studies carried out to locate quantitative trait loci (QTL) and candidate genes (CG) on the maize genome as well as the application of genomic selection in maize for resistance against Fusarium graminearum, Fusarium verticillioides and Aspergillus flavus. QTL studies by linkage or genome-wide association mapping, omic technologies (genomics, proteomics, transcriptomics and metabolomics) and bioinformatics are the methods used in the current studies to propose resistance genes against ear rot pathogens. Though a number of QTL and CG are reported, only a few specific genes were found to directly confer ER resistance in maize. A combination of two or more gene identification methods would provide a more powerful and reliable tool. Genomic selection seems to be promising for ER resistance breeding, but there are only a limited number of studies in this area. A strategy that can accurately validate and predict genotypes with major effect QTL and CG for selection will be worthwhile for practical breeding against ERs and mycotoxin contamination in maize.

PMID: 31440772 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Lipidomic studies of membrane glycerolipids in plant leaves under heat stress.

February 26, 2020 - 7:18am
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Lipidomic studies of membrane glycerolipids in plant leaves under heat stress.

Prog Lipid Res. 2019 07;75:100990

Authors: Higashi Y, Saito K

Abstract
Environmental stresses cause membrane damage in terrestrial plants. Studies on the lipids obtained from these plants are required to understand their adaptation to climate change. Recently, a number of plant leaf lipidomic studies converged on the topic of chloroplastic glycerolipid remodeling and triacylglycerol production. In this review, we show that among various abiotic stresses, plant leaves under heat stress specifically increase the levels of galactolipids containing linoleate (18:2) in chloroplasts; phospholipids containing palmitate (16:0), stearate (18:0), and oleate (18:1) in the endoplasmic reticulum and plasma membrane; and triacylglycerol containing α-linolenate (18:3) and hexadecatrienoic acid (16:3) as lipid droplets in the leaves of Arabidopsis thaliana. Recent studies have proposed responsible genes for the lipid remodeling under heat stress, highlighting the importance of the catabolic process of chloroplastic monogalactosyldiacylglycerol. This review comprehensively describes glycerolipid compositional changes in plant leaves under heat stress detected by lipidomic analyses and compares them with those under other abiotic stresses. We will discuss the physiological significance underlying the observed lipid metabolism under heat stress. Detailed knowledge about plant lipid remodeling can aid in the development of solutions to deal with the consequences of climate change, including global warming.

PMID: 31442527 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Modern traditional Chinese medicine: Identifying, defining and usage of TCM components.

February 25, 2020 - 8:19am
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Modern traditional Chinese medicine: Identifying, defining and usage of TCM components.

Adv Pharmacol. 2020;87:113-158

Authors: Newman DJ

Abstract
TCM-based medications have been used for millennia in China and have always been "different" from current Western-based medicines in that they frequently are still mixtures of predominately plant products. From the early 20th Century, there has been a move to identify both the actual compounds in these mixes, and then over the past approximately 50years, to utilize early information for current diseases, with an example being artemisinin for treatment of malaria. Since that discovery, Western scientists, together with their Chinese counterparts, have begun to investigate how TCM compositions can be utilized to discover new agents, sometimes the actual TCM-based compound(s) but also by utilizing the pharmacophores from such preparations that have utility in human diseases. The examples in this review include artemisinin derivatives and their manifold bioactivities, indirubins and derivatives as antitumor agents, arsenicals predominately as treatment for leukemia, though extending into other cancer types. Finally, there are sections discussing the use of current computerized techniques that combine metabolomics, mass spectroscopy/HPLC, and network pharmacology with the aim of identifying the "active principles" in relevant TCM preparations and finally how high content screening can be utilized in conjunction with the other analytical techniques.

PMID: 32089231 [PubMed - in process]

Recent advances in understanding the role of secondary metabolites in species-rich multitrophic networks.

February 22, 2020 - 12:18pm
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Recent advances in understanding the role of secondary metabolites in species-rich multitrophic networks.

Curr Opin Insect Sci. 2019 04;32:124-130

Authors: Sedio BE

Abstract
Understanding coexistence in species-rich communities remains a primary challenge of ecology. Interactions mediated through multitrophic networks are thought to play an important role in sustaining species coexistence in the face of competition for resources. The identity of trophic partners and the intensity with which they interact are often mediated by diverse secondary metabolites. Recent innovations in organic-molecule bioinformatics and multivariate statistical analysis are rapidly advancing our understanding of metabolites and the multitrophic interactions they mediate. Here, I examine recent advances in the study of chemical ecology in species-rich multitrophic communities, with an emphasis on plant-herbivore networks, and explore the potential for chemically mediated interactions to shape community composition and sustain species diversity in ecological communities.

PMID: 31113624 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Precision Medicine Approach in Prostate Cancer.

February 19, 2020 - 8:18am

Precision Medicine Approach in Prostate Cancer.

Curr Pharm Des. 2020 Feb 17;:

Authors: Assadi M, Jokar N, Ghasemi M, Nabipour I, Gholamrezanezhad A, Ahmadzadehfar H

Abstract
Prostate cancer is the most prevalent form of cancer and the second cause of death in men worldwide. Various diagnostic and treatment procedures are available for this type of malignancy, but High-risk or locally advanced prostate cancers showed the potential to develop to lethal phase that can be causing dead. Therefore, new approaches are needed to prolong patient survival and provide a better quality of life. Precision medicine is a novel emerging field that has an essential role in identifying new sub-classifications of disease and guiding treatment based on individual multi-omics data. Multi-omics approaches include the use of genomics, transcriptomics, proteomics, metabolomics, epigenomics and phenomics data to unravel the complexity of a disease-associated biological network, to predict prognostic biomarkers, and to identify new targeted drugs for individual cancer patients. We review the impact of multi-omics data in the framework of systems biology in the era of precision medicine, emphasising the combination of molecular imaging modalities with high-throughput techniques and the new treatments that target metabolic pathways involved in prostate cancer.

PMID: 32067601 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Metabolomics to Characterize Adaptive and Signaling Responses in Legume Crops under Abiotic Stresses.

February 11, 2020 - 7:18am
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Metabolomics to Characterize Adaptive and Signaling Responses in Legume Crops under Abiotic Stresses.

ACS Omega. 2020 Feb 04;5(4):1752-1763

Authors: Bueno PCP, Lopes NP

Abstract
Legume species are an important source of protein and other nutrients for human and livestock consumption, playing a central role in food security. Besides, legumes benefit agriculture because of their ability to establish symbiotic interactions with nitrogen-fixing bacteria, providing nitrogen for subsequent crops, which is very much appreciated for sustainable agricultural practices. However, like other food crops, legumes are highly vulnerable to climate variations, water stresses being the main constraint that negatively affects both crop quality and productivity. Because of this, the development of strategies to improve the tolerance of such cultivars against water stresses, as well as the study of effective approaches to monitor these improvements, have gained special attention during the last years. Among these strategies, metabolomics has been considered one of the most promising approaches for the detection and/or quantification of primary and secondary stress-responsive metabolites in abiotic stresses. In plant science, many research groups have been using metabolomics to evaluate the success of genetic modifications by the analysis of chemical markers that can be altered in breeding programs. In addition, metabolomics is a powerful tool for the evaluation and selection of wild specimens with desirable traits that can be used in the development of improved new cultivars. Therefore, the aim of the present paper is to review the recent progress made in the field of metabolomics and plant breeding, especially concerning the adaptive responses of legume species to abiotic stresses as well as to point out the key primary and secondary metabolites involved in the adaptation and sensing mechanisms.

PMID: 32039310 [PubMed]

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