Plant Metabolomics Reviews

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Using metabolome data for mathematical modeling of plant metabolic systems.

June 14, 2019 - 8:08pm
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Using metabolome data for mathematical modeling of plant metabolic systems.

Curr Opin Biotechnol. 2018 12;54:138-144

Authors: Hirai MY, Shiraishi F

Abstract
Plant metabolism is characterized by a wide diversity of metabolites, with systems far more complicated than those of microorganisms. Mathematical modeling is useful for understanding dynamic behaviors of plant metabolic systems for metabolic engineering. Time-series metabolome data has great potential for estimating kinetic model parameters to construct a genome-wide metabolic network model. However, data obtained by current metabolomics techniques does not meet the requirement for constructing accurate models. In this article, we highlight novel strategies and algorithms to handle the underlying difficulties and construct dynamic in vivo models for large-scale plant metabolic systems. The coarse but efficient modeling enables the prediction of unknown mechanisms regulating plant metabolism.

PMID: 30195121 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

A review on remediation of cyanide containing industrial wastes using biological systems with special reference to enzymatic degradation.

June 6, 2019 - 7:33am
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A review on remediation of cyanide containing industrial wastes using biological systems with special reference to enzymatic degradation.

World J Microbiol Biotechnol. 2019 Apr 22;35(5):70

Authors: Sharma M, Akhter Y, Chatterjee S

Abstract
Cyanide is a nitrile which is used extensively in many industries like jewelry, mining, electroplating, plastics, dyes, paints, pharmaceuticals, food processing, and coal coking. Cyanides pose a serious health hazard due to their high affinity towards metals and cause malfunction of cellular respiration by inhibition of cytochrome c oxidase. This inhibition ultimately leads to histotoxic hypoxia, increased acidosis, reduced the functioning of the central nervous system and myocardial activity. Different physicochemical processes including oxidation by hydrogen peroxide, alkaline chlorination, and ozonization have been used to reduce cyanide waste from the environment. Microbial cyanide degradation which is considered as one the most successful techniques is used to take place through different biochemical/metabolic pathways involving reductive, oxidative, hydrolytic or substitution/transfer reactions. Groups of enzymes involved in microbial degradation are cyanidase, cyanide hydratase, formamidase, nitrilase, nitrile hydratase, cyanide dioxygenase, cyanide monooxygenase, cyanase and nitrogenase. In the future, more advancement of omics technologies and protein engineering will help us to recoup the environment from cyanide effluent. In this review, we have discussed the origin and environmental distribution of cyanide waste along with different bioremediation pathways and enzymes involved therein.

PMID: 31011828 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Anticancer Drug Targets of Salvia Phytometabolites: Chemistry, Biology and Omics.

May 30, 2019 - 7:52am
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Anticancer Drug Targets of Salvia Phytometabolites: Chemistry, Biology and Omics.

Curr Drug Targets. 2018;19(1):1-20

Authors: Hao DC, Ge GB, Xiao PG

Abstract
BACKGROUND: Salvia displays diverse anticancer properties, which are attributable to their diterpene and phenolic contents. There is no comprehensive review on the anticancer diversity and molecular targets of Salvia components.
OBJECTIVE: We investigate the diversity and molecular targets of Salvia phytometabolites responsible for the prevention and treatment of cancer and sarcoma.
RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: Traditional therapeutic knowledge suggests that Salvia species can be used to develop anticancer drugs. Lots of concerns have been raised for tanshinone (Tan) IIA and cryptotanshinone. Some Salvia compounds disturb cell cycle and induce apoptosis of tumor cells or enhance immune activities, while others inhibit the proliferation, invasion, angiogenesis, and metastasis, or reverse the multi-drug resistance of cancer cells. Salvia phytometabolites regulate most cancer hallmarks defined by Hanahan and Weinberg. The same class of phytometabolite could exert the anticancer activity via multiple pathways. ADME/T properties and pharmacokinetic bebaviors of some phytometabolites have been revealed. Fluorescent probes are powerful tools for screening substrates, inhibitors or inducers of drug metabolizing enzymes/transporters from Salvia phytometabolites. Omics platform will greatly help mining more potentially useful phytometabolites from Salvia plants. More Salvia plants have application potential in pharmaceutical industry and clinical cancer therapy.

PMID: 27924725 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Metabolomics 20 years on: what have we learned and what hurdles remain?

May 29, 2019 - 7:31am
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Metabolomics 20 years on: what have we learned and what hurdles remain?

Plant J. 2018 06;94(6):933-942

Authors: Alseekh S, Fernie AR

Abstract
The term metabolome was coined in 1998, by analogy to genome, transcriptome and proteome. The first research papers using the terms metabolomics, metabonomics, metabolic profiling or metabolite profiling were published shortly thereafter. In this short review we reflect on the major achievements brought about by the use of these approaches, and document the knowledge and technology gaps that are currently constraining its further development. Finally, we detail why we think that the time is ripe to refocus our efforts on the understanding of metabolic function.

PMID: 29734513 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Metabolomics for a millenniums-old crop - tea plant (Camellia sinensis).

May 24, 2019 - 8:08am
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Metabolomics for a millenniums-old crop - tea plant (Camellia sinensis).

J Agric Food Chem. 2019 May 22;:

Authors: Jiang C, Ma JQ, Apostolides Z, Chen L

Abstract
Tea cultivation and utilization dates back to antiquity. Today it is the most widely consumed beverage on earth due to its pleasant taste, and several beneficial health properties attributing to specific metabolites. Metabolomics has a tremendous potential to correlate tea metabolites with taste and health properties in humans. Our review on the current application of metabolomics in the tea science suggests that metabolomics is a promising frontier in the evaluation of tea quality, identification of functional genes responsible for key metabolites, investigation of their metabolic regulation and pathway analysis in the tea plant. Furthermore, the challenges, possible solutions and the prospects of metabolomics in the tea science are reviewed.

PMID: 31117495 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

[Comparation and utilization of crop-omics databases].

May 24, 2019 - 8:08am
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[Comparation and utilization of crop-omics databases].

Yi Chuan. 2018 Jul 20;40(7):534-545

Authors: Song J, Wu YB, Zhou YH, Liu BJ, Wang N, Hao ZF, Wu YQ

Abstract
Omics plays an important role in life sciences, which studies all the components and their interrelations as a whole. The omics databases collected and sorted out the relevant information to support omics research. The crop-omics database, based on the major food crop information, especially on the sequencing information and data mining, is set up to improve the basic research level of crop sciences and production, which potentially benefit our grain stock. Here, we summarize crop genomics, transcriptomics, proteomics, metabolomics and phenomics, explore the development and utilization status of crop-omics, and reveal that the comprehensive utilization of multiple omics databases has become an important research method for crop sciences in the era of high throughput information.

PMID: 30021717 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Contribution of Untargeted Metabolomics for Future Assessment of Biotech Crops.

May 21, 2019 - 7:30am
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Contribution of Untargeted Metabolomics for Future Assessment of Biotech Crops.

Trends Plant Sci. 2018 12;23(12):1047-1056

Authors: Christ B, Pluskal T, Aubry S, Weng JK

Abstract
The nutritional value and safety of food crops are ultimately determined by their chemical composition. Recent developments in the field of metabolomics have made it possible to characterize the metabolic profile of crops in a comprehensive and high-throughput manner. Here, we propose that state-of-the-art untargeted metabolomics technology should be leveraged for safety assessment of new crop products. We suggest generally applicable experimental design principles that facilitate the efficient and rigorous identification of both intended and unintended metabolic alterations associated with a newly engineered trait. Our proposition could contribute to increased transparency of the safety assessment process for new biotech crops.

PMID: 30361071 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Mass spectrometry-driven drug discovery for development of herbal medicine.

May 21, 2019 - 7:30am
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Mass spectrometry-driven drug discovery for development of herbal medicine.

Mass Spectrom Rev. 2018 05;37(3):307-320

Authors: Zhang A, Sun H, Wang X

Abstract
Herbal medicine (HM) has made a major contribution to the drug discovery process with regard to identifying products compounds. Currently, more attention has been focused on drug discovery from natural compounds of HM. Despite the rapid advancement of modern analytical techniques, drug discovery is still a difficult and lengthy process. Fortunately, mass spectrometry (MS) can provide us with useful structural information for drug discovery, has been recognized as a sensitive, rapid, and high-throughput technology for advancing drug discovery from HM in the post-genomic era. It is essential to develop an efficient, high-quality, high-throughput screening method integrated with an MS platform for early screening of candidate drug molecules from natural products. We have developed a new chinmedomics strategy reliant on MS that is capable of capturing the candidate molecules, facilitating their identification of novel chemical structures in the early phase; chinmedomics-guided natural product discovery based on MS may provide an effective tool that addresses challenges in early screening of effective constituents of herbs against disease. This critical review covers the use of MS with related techniques and methodologies for natural product discovery, biomarker identification, and determination of mechanisms of action. It also highlights high-throughput chinmedomics screening methods suitable for lead compound discovery illustrated by recent successes.

PMID: 28009933 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Can Omics Approaches Improve Microalgal Biofuels under Abiotic Stress?

May 16, 2019 - 7:29am
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Can Omics Approaches Improve Microalgal Biofuels under Abiotic Stress?

Trends Plant Sci. 2019 May 10;:

Authors: Salama ES, Govindwar SP, Khandare RV, Roh HS, Jeon BH, Li X

Abstract
Microalgae hold the promise of an inexpensive and sustainable source of biofuels. The existing microalgal cultivation technologies need significant improvement to outcompete other biofuel sources such as terrestrial plants. Application of 'algomics' approaches under different abiotic stress conditions could be an effective strategy for optimization of microalgal growth and production of high-quality biofuels. In this review, we discuss the roles of omics in understanding genome structure and biocomponents metabolism in various microalgal species to optimize sustainable biofuel production. Application of individual and integrated omics revealed that genes and metabolic pathways of microalgae have been altered under multiple stress conditions, resulting in an increase in biocomponents, providing a research platform for expansion of genetic engineering studies in microalgal strains.

PMID: 31085124 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Nutrimetabolomics: An Integrative Action for Metabolomic Analyses in Human Nutritional Studies.

May 15, 2019 - 7:57am
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Nutrimetabolomics: An Integrative Action for Metabolomic Analyses in Human Nutritional Studies.

Mol Nutr Food Res. 2019 01;63(1):e1800384

Authors: Ulaszewska MM, Weinert CH, Trimigno A, Portmann R, Andres Lacueva C, Badertscher R, Brennan L, Brunius C, Bub A, Capozzi F, Cialiè Rosso M, Cordero CE, Daniel H, Durand S, Egert B, Ferrario PG, Feskens EJM, Franceschi P, Garcia-Aloy M, Giacomoni F, Giesbertz P, González-Domínguez R, Hanhineva K, Hemeryck LY, Kopka J, Kulling SE, Llorach R, Manach C, Mattivi F, Migné C, Münger LH, Ott B, Picone G, Pimentel G, Pujos-Guillot E, Riccadonna S, Rist MJ, Rombouts C, Rubert J, Skurk T, Sri Harsha PSC, Van Meulebroek L, Vanhaecke L, Vázquez-Fresno R, Wishart D, Vergères G

Abstract
The life sciences are currently being transformed by an unprecedented wave of developments in molecular analysis, which include important advances in instrumental analysis as well as biocomputing. In light of the central role played by metabolism in nutrition, metabolomics is rapidly being established as a key analytical tool in human nutritional studies. Consequently, an increasing number of nutritionists integrate metabolomics into their study designs. Within this dynamic landscape, the potential of nutritional metabolomics (nutrimetabolomics) to be translated into a science, which can impact on health policies, still needs to be realized. A key element to reach this goal is the ability of the research community to join, to collectively make the best use of the potential offered by nutritional metabolomics. This article, therefore, provides a methodological description of nutritional metabolomics that reflects on the state-of-the-art techniques used in the laboratories of the Food Biomarker Alliance (funded by the European Joint Programming Initiative "A Healthy Diet for a Healthy Life" (JPI HDHL)) as well as points of reflections to harmonize this field. It is not intended to be exhaustive but rather to present a pragmatic guidance on metabolomic methodologies, providing readers with useful "tips and tricks" along the analytical workflow.

PMID: 30176196 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Advances in genomic, transcriptomic, proteomic, and metabolomic approaches to study biotic stress in fruit crops.

May 10, 2019 - 7:34am
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Advances in genomic, transcriptomic, proteomic, and metabolomic approaches to study biotic stress in fruit crops.

Crit Rev Biotechnol. 2019 May 08;:1-13

Authors: Li T, Wang YH, Liu JX, Feng K, Xu ZS, Xiong AS

Abstract
Biotic stress is one of the key factors that restrict the growth and development of plants. Fruit crops are mostly perennial, so they are more seriously endangered by biotic stress. Plant responses to different types of biotic stresses such as pathogens and insects are controlled by a very complex regulatory and defense system. High-throughput sequencing (next-generation sequencing) has brought powerful research strategies and methods to the research fields of genomics and post-genomics. Functional genomics, transcriptomics, proteomics, metabolomics, and deep-sequencing of small RNAs provides a new path to better understand the complex regulatory and defense systems behind biotic stress in plants. In this review, we summarized recent progresses in research on fruit crops responses to biotic stress using genomics, transcriptomics, proteomics, metabolomics, and deep-sequencing approaches. This paper also summarized the information of SNP marker resources and the transcription factors that are involved in the regulation of biotic stress responses obtained from genome sequencing, and discusses the differential expression of related genes and proteins identified by transcriptome and proteome sequencing. At the same time, the roles of signaling pathways and metabolites involved in plant biotic stress revealed by the metabolome have also been discussed. In addition, the application of small RNA deep sequencing in the study of fruit crop response to biotic stress has also been included in this review. These omics and deep sequencing methods will greatly support the biotic resistance-resistant breeding of fruit crops.

PMID: 31068014 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Facing Climate Change: Biotechnology of Iconic Mediterranean Woody Crops.

May 7, 2019 - 7:32am
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Facing Climate Change: Biotechnology of Iconic Mediterranean Woody Crops.

Front Plant Sci. 2019;10:427

Authors: De Ollas C, Morillón R, Fotopoulos V, Puértolas J, Ollitrault P, Gómez-Cadenas A, Arbona V

Abstract
The Mediterranean basin is especially sensitive to the adverse outcomes of climate change and especially to variations in rainfall patterns and the incidence of extremely high temperatures. These two concurring adverse environmental conditions will surely have a detrimental effect on crop performance and productivity that will be particularly severe on woody crops such as citrus, olive and grapevine that define the backbone of traditional Mediterranean agriculture. These woody species have been traditionally selected for traits such as improved fruit yield and quality or alteration in harvesting periods, leaving out traits related to plant field performance. This is currently a crucial aspect due to the progressive and imminent effects of global climate change. Although complete genome sequence exists for sweet orange (Citrus sinensis) and clementine (Citrus clementina), olive tree (Olea europaea) and grapevine (Vitis vinifera), the development of biotechnological tools to improve stress tolerance still relies on the study of the available genetic resources including interspecific hybrids, naturally occurring (or induced) polyploids and wild relatives under field conditions. To this respect, post-genomic era studies including transcriptomics, metabolomics and proteomics provide a wide and unbiased view of plant physiology and biochemistry under adverse environmental conditions that, along with high-throughput phenotyping, could contribute to the characterization of plant genotypes exhibiting physiological and/or genetic traits that are correlated to abiotic stress tolerance. The ultimate goal of precision agriculture is to improve crop productivity, in terms of yield and quality, making a sustainable use of land and water resources under adverse environmental conditions using all available biotechnological tools and high-throughput phenotyping. This review focuses on the current state-of-the-art of biotechnological tools such as high throughput -omics and phenotyping on grapevine, citrus and olive and their contribution to plant breeding programs.

PMID: 31057569 [PubMed]

Improvement of phytochemical production by plant cells and organ culture and by genetic engineering.

May 6, 2019 - 7:42pm
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Improvement of phytochemical production by plant cells and organ culture and by genetic engineering.

Plant Cell Rep. 2019 May 04;:

Authors: Nielsen E, Temporiti MEE, Cella R

Abstract
Plants display an amazing ability to synthesize a vast array of secondary metabolites that are an inexhaustible source of phytochemicals, bioactive molecules some of which impact the human health. Phytochemicals present in medicinal herbs and spices have long been used as natural remedies against illness. Plant tissue culture represents an alternative to whole plants as a source of phytochemicals. This approach spares agricultural land that can be used for producing food and other raw materials, thus favoring standardized phytochemical production regardless of climatic adversities and political events. Over the past 20 years, different strategies have been developed to increase the synthesis and the extraction of phytochemicals from tissue culture often obtaining remarkable results. Moreover, the availability of genomics and metabolomics tools, along with improved recombinant methods related to the ability to overexpress, silence or disrupt one or more genes of the pathway of interest promise to open new exciting possibilities of metabolic engineering. This review provides a general framework of the cellular and molecular tools developed so far to enhance the yield of phytochemicals. Additionally, some emerging topics such as the culture of cambial meristemoid cells, the selection of plant cell following the expression of genes encoding human target proteins, and the bioextraction of phytochemicals from plant material have been addressed. Altogether, the herein described techniques and results are expected to improve metabolic engineering tools aiming at improving the production of phytochemicals of pharmaceutical and nutraceutical interest.

PMID: 31055622 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Promoting new concepts of skincare via skinomics and systems biology-From traditional skincare and efficacy-based skincare to precision skincare.

May 6, 2019 - 7:42pm
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Promoting new concepts of skincare via skinomics and systems biology-From traditional skincare and efficacy-based skincare to precision skincare.

J Cosmet Dermatol. 2018 Dec;17(6):968-976

Authors: Jiang B, Jia Y, He C

Abstract
Traditional skincare involves the subjective classification of skin into 4 categories (oily, dry, mixed, and neutral) prior to skin treatment. Following the development of noninvasive methods in skin and skin imaging technology, scientists have developed efficacy-based skincare products based on the physiological characteristics of skin under different conditions. Currently, the emergence of skinomics and systems biology has facilitated the development of precision skincare. In this article, the evolution of skincare based on the physiological states of the skin (from traditional skincare and efficacy-based skincare to precision skincare) is described. In doing so, we highlight skinomics and systems biology, with particular emphasis on the importance of skin lipidomics and microbiomes in precision skincare. The emerging trends of precision skincare are anticipated.

PMID: 29749695 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Antispasmodic Effect of Essential Oils and Their Constituents: A Review.

May 1, 2019 - 7:57am
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Antispasmodic Effect of Essential Oils and Their Constituents: A Review.

Molecules. 2019 Apr 29;24(9):

Authors: Heghes SC, Vostinaru O, Rus LM, Mogosan C, Iuga CA, Filip L

Abstract
The antispasmodic effect of drugs is used for the symptomatic treatment of cramping and discomfort affecting smooth muscles from the gastrointestinal, billiary or genitourinary tract in a variety of clinical situations.The existing synthetic antispasmodic drugs may cause a series of unpleasant side effects, and therefore the discovery of new molecules of natural origin is an important goal for the pharmaceutical industry. This review describes a series of recent studies investigating the antispasmodic effect of essential oils from 39 plant species belonging to 12 families. The pharmacological models used in the studies together with the mechanistic discussions and the chemical composition of the essential oils are also detailed. The data clearly demonstrate the antispasmodic effect of the essential oils from the aromatic plant species studied. Further research is needed in order to ascertain the therapeutic importance of these findings.

PMID: 31035694 [PubMed - in process]

Defining the Genetic Basis of Plant⁻Endophytic Bacteria Interactions.

April 24, 2019 - 7:31am
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Defining the Genetic Basis of Plant⁻Endophytic Bacteria Interactions.

Int J Mol Sci. 2019 Apr 20;20(8):

Authors: Pinski A, Betekhtin A, Hupert-Kocurek K, Mur LAJ, Hasterok R

Abstract
Endophytic bacteria, which interact closely with their host, are an essential part of the plant microbiome. These interactions enhance plant tolerance to environmental changes as well as promote plant growth, thus they have become attractive targets for increasing crop production. Numerous studies have aimed to characterise how endophytic bacteria infect and colonise their hosts as well as conferring important traits to the plant. In this review, we summarise the current knowledge regarding endophytic colonisation and focus on the insights that have been obtained from the mutants of bacteria and plants as well as 'omic analyses. These show how endophytic bacteria produce various molecules and have a range of activities related to chemotaxis, motility, adhesion, bacterial cell wall properties, secretion, regulating transcription and utilising a substrate in order to establish a successful interaction. Colonisation is mediated by plant receptors and is regulated by the signalling that is connected with phytohormones such as auxin and jasmonic (JA) and salicylic acids (SA). We also highlight changes in the expression of small RNAs and modifications of the cell wall properties. Moreover, in order to exploit the beneficial plant-endophytic bacteria interactions in agriculture successfully, we show that the key aspects that govern successful interactions remain to be defined.

PMID: 31010043 [PubMed - in process]

Finding the bad actor: Challenges in identifying toxic constituents in botanical dietary supplements.

April 19, 2019 - 7:58am
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Finding the bad actor: Challenges in identifying toxic constituents in botanical dietary supplements.

Food Chem Toxicol. 2019 Feb;124:431-438

Authors: Roberts GK, Gardner D, Foster PM, Howard PC, Lui E, Walker L, van Breemen RB, Auerbach SS, Rider C

Abstract
Botanical-derived dietary supplements have widespread use in the general population. The complex and variable nature of botanical ingredients and reports of adverse responses have led to concern for negative human health impacts following consumption of these products. Toxicity testing of the vast number of available products, formulations, and combinations is not feasible due to the time and resource intensive nature of comprehensive testing. Methods are needed to assess the safety of a large number of products via more efficient frameworks. Identification of toxicologically-active constituents is one approach being used, with many advantages toward product regulation. Bioassay-guided fractionation (BGF) is the leading approach used to identify biologically-active constituents. Most BGF studies with botanicals focus on identifying pharmacologically-active constituents for drug discovery or botanical efficacy research. Here, we explore BGF in a toxicological context, drawing from both efficacy and poisonous plant research. Limitations of BGF, including loss of mixture activity and bias toward abundant constituents, and recent advancements in the field (e.g., biochemometrics) are discussed from a toxicological perspective. Identification of active constituents will allow better monitoring of market products for known toxicologically-active constituents, as well as surveying human exposure, two important steps to ensuring the safety of botanical dietary supplements.

PMID: 30582954 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Metabolomics in Plant Stress Physiology.

April 17, 2019 - 7:32am
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Metabolomics in Plant Stress Physiology.

Adv Biochem Eng Biotechnol. 2018;164:187-236

Authors: Ghatak A, Chaturvedi P, Weckwerth W

Abstract
Metabolomics is an essential technology for functional genomics and systems biology. It plays a key role in functional annotation of genes and understanding towards cellular and molecular, biotic and abiotic stress responses. Different analytical techniques are used to extend the coverage of a full metabolome. The commonly used techniques are NMR, CE-MS, LC-MS, and GC-MS. The choice of a suitable technique depends on the speed, sensitivity, and accuracy. This chapter provides insight into plant metabolomic techniques, databases used in the analysis, data mining and processing, compound identification, and limitations in metabolomics. It also describes the workflow of measuring metabolites in plants. Metabolomic studies in plant responses to stress are a key research topic in many laboratories worldwide. We summarize different approaches and provide a generic overview of stress responsive metabolite markers and processes compiled from a broad range of different studies. Graphical Abstract.

PMID: 29470599 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Somatic Embryogenesis Induction in Woody Species: The Future After OMICs Data Assessment.

April 16, 2019 - 7:58am
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Somatic Embryogenesis Induction in Woody Species: The Future After OMICs Data Assessment.

Front Plant Sci. 2019;10:240

Authors: Pais MS

Abstract
Very early somatic embryogenesis has been recognized as a powerful method to propagate plants in vitro. For some woody species and in particular for some coniferous trees, somatic embryogenesis induction has become a routine procedure. For the majority, the application of this technology presents yet many limitations especially due to the genotype, the induction conditions, the number of embryos produced, maturation, and conversion, among other factors that compromise the systematic use of somatic embryogenesis for commercial purposes especially of woody species and forest trees in particular. The advancements obtained on somatic embryogenesis in Arabidopsis and the development of OMIC technologies allowed the characterization of genes and the corresponding proteins that are conserved in woody species. This knowledge will help in understanding the molecular mechanisms underlying the complex regulatory networks that control somatic embryogenesis in woody plants. In this revision, we report on developments of OMICs (genomics, transcriptomics, metabolomics, and proteomics) applied to somatic embryogenesis induction and its contribution for understanding the change of fate giving rise to the expression of somatic embryogenesis competence.

PMID: 30984207 [PubMed]

Dynamic regulation of plasmodesmatal permeability and its application to horticultural research.

April 10, 2019 - 7:32am
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Dynamic regulation of plasmodesmatal permeability and its application to horticultural research.

Hortic Res. 2019;6:47

Authors: Sun Y, Huang D, Chen X

Abstract
Effective cell-to-cell communication allows plants to fine-tune their developmental processes in accordance with the prevailing environmental stimuli. Plasmodesmata (PD) are intercellular channels that span the plant cell wall and serve as cytoplasmic bridges to facilitate efficient exchange of signaling molecules between neighboring cells. The identification of PD-associated proteins and the subsequent elucidation of the regulation of PD structure have provided vital insights into the role of PD architecture in enforcing crucial cellular processes, including callose deposition, ER-Golgi-based secretion, cytoskeleton dynamics, membrane lipid raft organization, chloroplast metabolism, and cell wall formation. In this review, we summarize the emerging discoveries from recent studies that elucidated the regulatory mechanisms involved in PD biogenesis and the dynamics of PD opening-closure. Retrospectively, PD-mediated cell-to-cell communication has been implicated in diverse cellular and physiological processes that are fundamental for the development of horticultural plants. The potential application of PD biotechnological engineering represents a powerful approach for improving agronomic traits in horticultural crops in the future.

PMID: 30962940 [PubMed]

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